Biology- Keeping Healthy

chloeswarbrick
Mind Map by , created over 5 years ago

Mind Map on Biology- Keeping Healthy, created by chloeswarbrick on 05/28/2014.

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chloeswarbrick
Created by chloeswarbrick over 5 years ago
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Biology- Keeping Healthy
1 Microorganisms and Disease
1.1 Symptoms are us usually caused by the cell damage caused by the microorganism or by the toxins produced by the microorganism.
1.2 The microorganisms reproduce quickly inside the human body.
1.2.1 Bacteria reproduce by creating copies of themselves and need a source of nutrients and warm nd moist conditions to do this.
1.2.2 Viruses need other cells to reproduce and use parts of other cells to make copies of themselves.
1.2.3 Most microorganism can reproduce very 20 minutes.
2 The Immune System
2.1 Phagocyte
2.2 Lymphocyte
3 Vaccination
3.1 Involves injecting dead or inactive microorganisms. They still carry the antigens which still alows the body to try and attack hem but they are harmless. The body then creates memory cell that will recognise the microorganism if it ever eters the body again. And the body will be able to attackthe microorganisms quickly, without the person even recieving any symptoms.
3.2 They can prevent epidemics.
3.3 However, they arent completely safe as different people may have different side effects to the vaccination. As well as genetic differences in people which could cause people to react differntly to the drug. The microorgnisms in the vacination could also be active and alive when they should be dead aor inative, and the person may actually recieve the disease.
4 Antimicrobials/Antibiotics
4.1 They are chemicals created th inhibit the growth of microorganisms or kill them, without damaging the bodies own cells.
4.1.1 They can kill bacteria but not viruses such as flu and colds.
4.2 After time many microorganisms can develop muations in their DNA which cause them to be immune to the antimicrobial.
5 Drug Trials
5.1 When a new drug is created, it is first tested on human cells that are grown in thelaboratory, to see the drugs actual affect on real human cells and to see if they appear to be safe and are actually working. The drug then has to be tested on two species of live mammals. If any poyential harmful substances are found in the drug after testing it on the animals, they can be weeded out of the drug before it is tested on human volunteers. If the drug causes serious problems to the animals, the drug probably wont go any further, but if its fine, it will then go on to be tested on humans.
5.2 Three main types of trial- Blind, Double Blind and Open Label.
5.3 Placebos are sometimes used to compare people who have the drug and people who don't to see if the effects are correct and aren't compromised. But placebos often aren't used with ill people because its unethical.
6 The Circulatory System
6.1 The heart and blood vessels supply blood around the body
6.1.1 Arteries
6.1.1.1 They carry blood from the heart to the body cells. The blood comes out of the heart at high pressure, so the artery walls have to be thick and elastic.
6.1.2 Veins
6.1.2.1 Veins carry blood back to the heart. The blood is at lower pressure so the walls dont have to be that thick. They have a large lumen to allow easy blood flowand they have valves to ensure the blood flows in the correct way.
6.1.3 Capillaries
6.1.3.1 These are branches off arteries that are very small. They are very close to the cells to allow the exchanges of substances to the cells. They also have permeable walls to allow diffusion, in and out of them. They sup[ply the cells with nutrients and oxygen and take away the carbon dioxide. Their walls are only one cell thick.
6.2 The blood vessels carry oxygen and nutrients to the body cells and carry waste such as carbon dioxide away from the cells. The heart keeps the blood pumping through the vessels and the heart is a double pump. The right side of the heart pumps de-oxygenated blood to the lungs to collect oxygen and to remove carbon dioxide. Whereas the left hand side pumps oxygenated blood around the body. The heartr itrself is supplied with blood by two coronary arteries which branch from the base of the aorta.
7 Heart Rate and Blood Pressure
7.1 Heart Rate is the number of times your heart beats in a minute- BPM.
7.2 Pulse rate is the number of times an artery pulsates in one minute.
7.3 Blood Pressure is the pressure of the blood when its contract and relaxes. E.G. 135 over 85.
7.3.1 If your blood pressure is high, you are at higher risk or heart disease which can be fatal.
7.4 All of these measurements can be used to decide if a person is healthy or not.
8 Heart Disease
8.1 it is often linked to lifestyle factors but in some people it can be due to genetics.
8.2 It can be caused by a poor diet, smoking, stress, the misuse of drugs or excessively drinking alcohol.
8.3 Regular exercise can reduce your risk of heart disease.
8.4 Epidemiological Studies can identify possible risk factors.
9 Homeostasis
9.1 Definition: Balancing Inputs with outputs to maintain a constant internal environment.
9.1.1 Water Content
9.1.1.1 Inputs: Drinks, Food and Respiration. Outputs: Sweating, Breathing Faeces and Urine.
9.1.1.2 Alcohol decreases the production of ADH whereas Ecstasy increases the production of ADH.
9.1.2 Body Temperature
9.2 All control systems are made up of receptors, processing centres and effectors.