Moral Philosophy

lucy-hook
Mind Map by , created over 5 years ago

A-Level Philosophy Mind Map on Moral Philosophy, created by lucy-hook on 06/01/2014.

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lucy-hook
Created by lucy-hook over 5 years ago
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Moral Philosophy
1 meta-ethics
1.1 cognitivism
1.1.1 ethical naturalism
1.1.1.1 problems
1.1.1.1.1 Hume's 'is-ought gap'
1.1.1.1.2 Moore's 'naturalistic fallacy'
1.1.1.2 Ethical statements are verifiable factual statements
1.1.1.2.1 X is good means
1.1.1.2.1.1 Either I approve of X
1.1.1.2.1.2 Or X is good because X is...
1.1.2 ethical non-naturalism
1.1.2.1 problems
1.1.2.1.1 what about moral disagreement?
1.1.2.2 good is an indefinable quality that we can intuit but it cannot be directly observed
1.1.2.3 good is good, and that is the end of the matter
1.2 non-cognitivism
1.2.1 ethical statements are meaningless because they cannot be verefied
1.2.2 the function of ethical language is purely emotive
1.2.3 problems
1.2.3.1 Is something morally wrong if no one witnesses it?
1.2.3.2 saved by
1.2.3.2.1 prescriptivism
1.2.3.2.1.1 recognises the necessity of cognitive elements to moral judgements
2 normative ethics
2.1 utilitarianism
2.1.1 an action ought to be done if it produces the maximum happiness for all involved
2.1.2 based on the consequences
2.1.3 problems
2.1.3.1 consequences are unpredictable
2.1.3.2 special responsibilities
2.1.3.3 justice
2.1.3.3.1 solved by rule utilitarianism
2.2 deontology
2.2.1 based on the act itself
2.2.2 an action ought to be done according to our duty/the good will
2.2.3 an action must be universalisable and appeal to reason
2.2.4 treat people as an end in themselves and not a means to an end
2.2.5 problems
2.2.5.1 conflicts of duties
2.2.5.1.1 solved by W.D. Ross's prima facie duties
2.2.5.2 the categorical imperative excuses morally bad or just un moral acts
2.3 virtue ethics
2.3.1 based on the agent
2.3.2 ethical behaviour is about cultivation of character
2.3.3 moral people are not concerned with consequences or their duties but what sort of person they are becoming
2.3.4 makes moral action easier because it is not a calculation
2.3.5 doctrine of the mean
2.3.6 problems
2.3.6.1 problems with Aristotelean ideas of function
2.3.6.2 different types of life are considered virtuous
2.3.6.2.1 therefore act as a moral person is an unhelpful moral maxim

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