1.1.1 The divide between the wealthy north and the
poorer south, this is know as the Brandt line.
1.1.2 later this twofold classification was refined
by the World Bank into three main groupings,
higher, middle and lower income. With the
middle divided into upper and lower
1.1.3 the development gap refers to the
difference between the countries.
1.2 Human development
1.2.1 The UN argues that development is about improving
people social as wells as economic wellbeing,
addressing human development rather than economic
1.2.2 For example people may have a low income but a
good quality of life as they have access to free
education, health care and clean water supply.
1.2.3 more indicators of development have
therefore focused on factors such as literacy
rates, life expectancy, infant mortality etc.
1.3.1 more gender equalities between men
and women in terms of life expectancy,
education levels and fair income.
1.4.1 The differences between countries
is sometime called a development
1.4.2 Some people believe this better than a gap as
there is a gradation of countries at different levels
rather than clusters in distinct groups
1.5.1 Development data can also provide
information about the distribution of inequality
2 Factors that can affect levels of development
2.1.1 Water availability
2.1.2 Quality and location of
2.1.3 Harsh environments
2.1.4 Natural soil quality
2.1.5 Agricultural potential
2.2.1 Population levels and
2.2.2 Birth and death rate
2.2.3 Education levels and
2.4.1 Commitment of
governments to take action
2.4.2 Level and condition of
2.4.3 level of debt
2.4.5 the legacy of colonalism
3 Theories of development
3.1.1 this model argues that a country passes from
underdevelopment to development through a series of
stages of economic growth
3.1.2 he believed that capital should be
transferred from developed to
developing countries to assist in
3.1.3 However his theory didn't take into account
several non economic factors such as high rates
of population growth or political change.
3.2 Poverty cycle
3.2.1 Less developed countries are stuck in a
cycle of poverty as there is a lack of capital
and low incomes.
3.2.2 however this theory cannot account for the rapid
economic growth and emergence for countries
such as China, India and South Korea
3.2.3 It also assumes that
development takes place in
isolation from other countries and
is free of global interactions.
3.2.4 Enter text here
3.2.5 it also doesnt take into account foreign aid
and loads from international banks
3.3.1 the political model examines the impact of different
philosophies on equality and development
3.3.2 Karl Marx believed that the captalist free market economy
caused exploitation and social inequality while communism,
in which all the sectors of the economy are run by the state
made the effects of development more equitable
3.4.1 Gundar franks dependency theory of development
suggests that developed countries such as USA control
and exploit the less developed areas of the world.
3.4.2 this relationship of dominance and
dependency possibly leading to
poverty and underdevelopment in the
less developed countries, one
exmaple of this is colonialism
3.5.1 the relationship between
regions or countries is the
key focus of the theory.
3.5.2 Friedmann argued that beneficial effects can spread from
developed core regions to less developed, peripheral regions.
3.5.3 Myrdals model is similar except that spread
effects are outweighed by backwash effect
which favour the core regions