Bridging the development gap

07setchfields
Mind Map by , created over 5 years ago

Mind Map on Bridging the development gap, created by 07setchfields on 06/03/2014.

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07setchfields
Created by 07setchfields over 5 years ago
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Bridging the development gap
1 Measuring the development gap
1.1 North and south
1.1.1 The divide between the wealthy north and the poorer south, this is know as the Brandt line.
1.1.2 later this twofold classification was refined by the World Bank into three main groupings, higher, middle and lower income. With the middle divided into upper and lower
1.1.3 the development gap refers to the difference between the countries.
1.2 Human development
1.2.1 The UN argues that development is about improving people social as wells as economic wellbeing, addressing human development rather than economic
1.2.2 For example people may have a low income but a good quality of life as they have access to free education, health care and clean water supply.
1.2.3 more indicators of development have therefore focused on factors such as literacy rates, life expectancy, infant mortality etc.
1.3 Gender
1.3.1 more gender equalities between men and women in terms of life expectancy, education levels and fair income.
1.4 Continuum
1.4.1 The differences between countries is sometime called a development continuum
1.4.2 Some people believe this better than a gap as there is a gradation of countries at different levels rather than clusters in distinct groups
1.5 Distribution
1.5.1 Development data can also provide information about the distribution of inequality
2 Factors that can affect levels of development
2.1 Physical
2.1.1 Water availability
2.1.2 Quality and location of mineral deposits
2.1.3 Harsh environments
2.1.4 Natural soil quality
2.1.5 Agricultural potential
2.2 Social
2.2.1 Population levels and dependency
2.2.2 Birth and death rate
2.2.3 Education levels and workforce skills
2.2.4 infastructure
2.3 Economic
2.4 Political
2.4.1 Commitment of governments to take action
2.4.2 Level and condition of oversea investment
2.4.3 level of debt
2.4.4 Corruption
2.4.5 the legacy of colonalism
3 Theories of development
3.1 Rostow
3.1.1 this model argues that a country passes from underdevelopment to development through a series of stages of economic growth
3.1.2 he believed that capital should be transferred from developed to developing countries to assist in development
3.1.3 However his theory didn't take into account several non economic factors such as high rates of population growth or political change.
3.2 Poverty cycle
3.2.1 Less developed countries are stuck in a cycle of poverty as there is a lack of capital and low incomes.
3.2.2 however this theory cannot account for the rapid economic growth and emergence for countries such as China, India and South Korea
3.2.3 It also assumes that development takes place in isolation from other countries and is free of global interactions.
3.2.4 Enter text here
3.2.5 it also doesnt take into account foreign aid and loads from international banks
3.3 Politics
3.3.1 the political model examines the impact of different philosophies on equality and development
3.3.2 Karl Marx believed that the captalist free market economy caused exploitation and social inequality while communism, in which all the sectors of the economy are run by the state made the effects of development more equitable
3.4 Dependancy
3.4.1 Gundar franks dependency theory of development suggests that developed countries such as USA control and exploit the less developed areas of the world.
3.4.2 this relationship of dominance and dependency possibly leading to poverty and underdevelopment in the less developed countries, one exmaple of this is colonialism
3.5 Core-periphrey
3.5.1 the relationship between regions or countries is the key focus of the theory.
3.5.2 Friedmann argued that beneficial effects can spread from developed core regions to less developed, peripheral regions.
3.5.3 Myrdals model is similar except that spread effects are outweighed by backwash effect which favour the core regions

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