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Alice Emilie Gray
Mind Map by , created over 5 years ago

edexcel additional science

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Alice Emilie Gray
Created by Alice Emilie Gray over 5 years ago
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1 CLONES
1.1 diploid nucleus removed from the adult body cell
1.1.1 nucleus removed from an egg cell
1.1.1.1 the diploid nucleus is added to the egg cell
1.1.1.1.1 cell then divides (mitotic division) and grows an embryo
1.1.1.1.1.1 embryo placed inside a surrogates uterus until it is ready to be born
1.2 advantages
1.2.1 offspring will have all the good features of the parents
1.3 disadvantages
1.3.1 can take many attempts
1.3.2 can die early and suffer more health problems
1.3.3 any genetic defect will be given to the offspring
2 STEM CELLS
2.1 cells that can divide to produce many cells
2.2 embryonic
2.2.1 taken from the embryo and only produce a few cells
2.2.2 advantages of ESC
2.2.2.1 easy to extract
2.2.2.2 produce any type of cell
2.2.3 disads of ESC
2.2.3.1 kills embryo
2.2.3.2 can be rejected
2.3 adult
2.3.1 found in differentiated tissue
2.3.1.1 divide to replace damaged cells
2.3.2 ads of ASC
2.3.2.1 nothing is killed
2.3.2.2 will not be rejected
2.3.3 disads of ASC
2.3.3.1 difficult to extract from tissue
2.3.3.2 only produces a few types of cell
2.4 advantages of both
2.4.1 make a person well again
2.5 risks of both
2.5.1 can produce cancer cells
3 TRANSCRIPTION
3.1 double helix is unwound
3.1.1 free complementary bases are paired with the strand
3.1.1.1 makes a strand of complementary
3.2 T is replaced by U in RNA
4 TRANSLATION
4.1 ribosome moves along and reads the mRNA
4.1.1 tRNA molecules bring amino acids to match in the ribosome
4.1.1.1 the mRNA strand is paired with the tRNA piece
4.1.1.1.1 close amino acids are joined to make an AA chain
4.1.1.1.1.1 tRNA is free to go to another amino acid
5 PROTEINS
5.1 globular
5.1.1 enzymes
5.1.1.1 lipase
5.1.1.1.1 turns lipids (fat) into fatty acids and glycerol in the stomach, small intestines and pancreas.
5.1.1.2 amylase
5.1.1.2.1 breaks down starch into sugars in the pancreas, salivary glands and small intestines.
5.1.1.3 protease
5.1.1.3.1 break down proteins into amino acids in the small intestine and pancreas
5.2 fibrous
5.2.1 keratin (nails)
5.2.1.1 makes your nails tough
6 MUTATIONS
6.1 can change one or more bases in the DNA sequence
6.1.1 can change the amino acid that is added to the chain in the ribosome
6.1.1.1 this can have no effect, be beneficial or be harmful
7 ENZYMES
7.1 biological catalysts that control reactions in the body
7.1.1 all reactions in transcription and translation are controlled by different enzymes
8 ENZYME REACTION
8.1 temperature
8.1.1 down, up and down curve
8.2 substrate concentration
8.2.1 down up curve

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