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Note on GCSE HISTORY MEDICINE THROUGH TIME REVISION, created by JustHaych on 06/01/2013.

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Created by JustHaych about 6 years ago
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1. Prehistoric1. Time before Written Records2. Cave Paintings3. Aboriginal Cultures4. Slow Progress5. Archaeology5. Archaeopathology6. Social Gatherings7. Nomadic Hunter-gathers8. Excavations of ancient burials and tombs.9. Trephanning10. Spiritual reasons to illness

2. Egyptian1. River Nile→Wealth - Investment in Medicine/ trade.→Irrigation symptoms due to Water.→Well grown crops, due to fertile soil from River floods→Transport means communication with other countries and places→Communication meant trade of different types of things.2. Gods→Thoth sent gave doctors the ability to heal people→They were the reason for illness and cures→Controlled all aspects of life3. Diagnosis - recognition of symptoms.4. Papyrus - writing/recording disease, symptoms, and cure.5. Mummification→Allowed them to record their ideas about the body.→Removed soft-tissued organs from the body.→They couldn't experiment of bodies due to religious reasons. This limited Knowledge of body.7. Non-spiritual explanations→ River Nile like Channels in the body.→This theory lead them to cure like: vomiting, bleeding, purging.→Healthy Diet was important - medical sometimes would recommend this cure.8. Cleanliness→Priests washed, shaved, and kept clean every so often, so religious obviously followed.→The warmth in Egypt lead them to wash.→Developed Mosquito nets, which would have decreased disease.→ Had toilets, but were not sewage systems, they were manually emptied.

3. Greeks1. Asclepius - The God of Healing.2. Asclepion - Temple of healing.3. If People stayed at the temple they'd feel better.4. The temple had place to sleep, relax, exercise, and bathe. It had no roof, so fresh air too.    Helped psychologically and physically.5.  The sisters, Hygeia (cleanliness) and Panacea (a remedy for illness) would involved in healing.6. Spiritual/supernatural approach to medicine.7. The strongest empire in 500 BC.8. Hippocrates - Four Humours: Blood, Phlegm, Yellow bile and Black bile <what body was made up of.9. Hippocratic Oath - Still used today.10. Hippocrates - Diagnosis, Prognosis, Observation, Treatment11. Had a new way of thinking Philosophy, which meant people thought about natural reasoning for disease, rather than to Gods.

4. Roman1. Rejected Greek Ideas2. 293 BC - A plague hit Rome. This lead them to build an Asclepion in Rome.3. Built an Empire instead of tiny states, like the Greeks.4. Realised a good Empire needs to be healthy.5. Most Doctors were Greeks, even though they where brought to Rome as doctors. 6. Built Aqueducts. - 222 million gallons of water running through the city.7. Public Baths. - Some luxurious with mirrors.8. Sewers, where sewage was flushed out by streams.9. Hospitals - Obviously helped improve medicine, had to look after soldiers.10. Galen: 4 humours & Their Seasons. Started to add treatments, like cucumber (cool) in summer, if someone was ill. He thought that muscles attach to the bone in the same way in humans and in dogs. He thought that blood was created in the liver. He realised that it flowed round the body, but said it was burned up as fuel for the muscles. He thought he saw holes through the septum, which allowed the blood to flow from one side of the heart to the other. He made mistakes about the blood vessels in the brain. He thought the human jaw-bone was made up of two bones, like a dog's. He was mistaken about the shape of the human liver. 11. Galen dissected a pig, and made predictions of what our bodies were like. 12. His theories were used for over 1500 years. 13. People believed him because he believed in ONE GOD, which all Christians and Muslims and other religions excepted.14. A lot of Galen's theories were wrong.

5. Medieval 1. 5th Century AD - Europe developed into small fiefdoms, each governed by a local lord. 2. This division = knowledge spread slowly. 3. Communication was difficult/dangerous. 4. Academic knowledge - monasteries.  5. No universities. 6. Few people could read or write. 7. After 1066 - universities were established 8. Trade and communications developed - by sea. 9. Knowledge about medicine -stagnated.  10. Roman Empire collapsed - Loss of Knowledge 11. Lack of resources to build public health systems 12. Knowledge of the Greeks and Romans had -mostly lost in Europe.  13. Dominated by the church and superstition. 14. Galen was the only text supported by the Church. 15. The Church forbade dissection. 16. University lectures on anatomy were still very basic. 17. New ideas - student's debating skills, not through scientific proof. 18. Disease was caused by demons, sin, bad smells, astrology, stagnant water and the Jews. 19. Barber-surgeons rather than trained doctors. 20. Wine as an antiseptics. 21. Natural substances like opium, gall of boar and hemlock - as anaesthetics. 22. BLIPS 23. Didn't have sewers or water pipes. 25. Threw rubbish and human waste into the streets. 26. A room next to a privy (toilet) was unhealthy. 27. bleeding 28. applying leeches 29. vomiting in patients. 30. Monasteries set up baths, sewers, fresh water. 31. Colour, smell and taste of a patient's urine. 32. Quarantine laws - at the time of the Plague.33. Ibn Nafis said that the blood goes from 1 side of the heart to the other through the lungs. (correct). Wasn't able to prove due to religion.34. Alchemy (turning materials into gold) Meant new scientific equipment. Superstition on stars when experiments went wrong.35. Rhazes described smallpox and measles first.36. The black death in the 14th Century. First one.     God's punishment.     Didn't know cause, therefore no cures, therefore it returned later on again. And Not many lessons were learned.    Doctors afraid to be doctors.    Flagellants, whipping themselves to appease God.     

6. Renaissance

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