Chapter 28 AP World History

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5th Period. Deals with all the crazy revolutions going on and what led to them.

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Chapter 28: Revolutions and National States in the Atlantic World

Themes Present:- How Enlightenment ideas ( Socialism, Nationalism, Democracy) lead to the revolutions of this time period-

A. Enlightened and Revolutionary Ideas (Basically Continuities Overtime)1) Popular Sovereignty- In the Enlightenment, people began questioning the notions of sovereignty but rarely challenged monarchy- Instead to make Kings responsible to the subjects- Thinkers regarded government as a contract b/w rulers and subjects* John Locke suggests that the government needed consent from those it governed soo... if they didn't like those who governed, they can just take kick them out0 Locke's way of thought relocated the sovereignty from the rulers to the people2) Individual Freedom* Voltaire- resented the persecution of religious minorities and censorship of royal officials who stopped hersey in writing through the prevention of certain publications - Philosophies called for religious toleration and freedom of expression - When censored, books would be printed in French-speaking printers in Switzerland or Netherlands who then would smuggle the books across the border to France3) Political and Legal Equality - Enlightenment thinkers called for equality and recommended that all citizens be equal under the law* Jean Jacques Rousseau- (1712-1778)0 French-swiss thinker who was the most prominent advocate for political equality0 He identified with the working class and resented how the elite were luxiourious without doing any hard work0 Created book called The Social Contract which argued like Locke that the society as a whole were technically the sovereign0 Believed that general will would be the government if no elite or monarch- Enlightenment thinker were usually commoners and though they wanted govnt to have less power, they didn't really see themselves sharing equal right with women or children regardless of color or race4) Global Influence of Enlightenment Values - Enlightenment ideas readily adopted to serve as a justification in their efforts to shut down their long living political and social structures - Ideas spread when social reformers claimed rights previously denied to them by rulers- Mainly used by privileged Euro and Euro-American but also other minor groups

B. The American Revolution 1) Tightened British Control of the Colonies- Before F&I War: British and America were friends!- After F&I War: Pay for our tea! Geography: After mid-1760s, colonists began drifting from British rule because the Atlantic Ocean is huge so not really an efficient imperial system - Bureaucracy weakened so imperial power weakened- The colonies even had an elective legislative assembly that had control over taxation and defense. These people ultimately decided how much to pay the royal officials!- Britain became clingy again after the war and issued new taxes to bring order to it's far far far offspring- New taxes also so that the offspring (M'erica) could help pay for it's parent's (Britannia!) debt- Taxes made the offspring puke. It hated them as it taxed molasses by the Sugar Act (1764), legal documents or publications by the Stamp Act (1765), on tea by the Tea Act (1764) and on imports by the Townshend Act (1773)- July 4th 1776 the continental congress signed The Declaration of Independence for all 13 states

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