Car Safety

Note by donaghy_sinead, updated more than 1 year ago


AS level Physics, OCR A, Unit 1: Mechanics, Module 1.2.4. Car Safety

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Revision Notes: Physics OCR A: Unit 1: Module 2: Car Safety(a) define thinking distance, braking distance and stopping distance Thinking distance is speed multiplied by reaction time. It is the time between seeing the obstruction and pressing the brakesBraking distance is the time between pressing the brakes and the car actually stoppingStopping distance is thinking distance + braking distance(b) analyse and solve problems using the terms thinking distance, braking distance and stopping distance(c) describe the factors that affect thinking distance and braking distanceThinking distance is affected by the speed of the car. Also, your reaction time may change slightly due to tiredness, alcohol, drugs, illness or distractionsBraking distance depends on the braking force, friction between the tyres and the road, the mass and the speed of the car(d) describe and explain how air bags, seat belts and crumple zones in cars reduce impact forces in accidentsModern car safety features use the idea of slowing down the collision so it takes longer for you to stopBecause of the equation force = change in momentum/ time, if you increase the time, the force is decreased (e) describe how air bags work, including the triggering mechanismCars have a microchip accelerometer- rapid deceleration changes the capacitance of part of the microchip sends a signal to the airbag A rapid chemical reaction produces an inert gas which inflates the air bagThis happens very quickly before your head can hit the steering wheel. As soon as their inflated, the airbags begin to deflate as gas escapes through flaps in the fabric (f) describe how the trilateration technique is used in GPS (global positioning system) for carsThe GPS receives signals from at least three satellices, each transmitting their location and the time the signal was sentThere is a delay between the time the signal is sent and received, and this time delay allows the distance to be calculatedIf you know the distances to three satellites, you must be a the point where all three spheres meet GPS typically use at least four satellites to locate you in order to be even more accurate

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