Material Deprivation refers to poverty and a lack of material necessities such as adequate housing and income. In 2006, only 33% of children receiving free school meals gained 5 or more GCSEs at A*-C, against 61% of those not receiving free school meals Exclusion and truancy are more likely for children from poorer families Nearly 90% of 'failing' schools are located in deprived areas 1. Housing:Poor housing can affect pupils' achievement directly and indirectly. E.g. overcrowding means less room for educational activities and disturbed sleeping which directly makes it harder for the child to study. Development can be impaired through constant changes of school due to temporary accommodation.Indirect effects include the risk of accidents in overcrowded houses and cold or dampness causing ill health. Families in temporary accommodation suffer more psychological distress, infections and accidents creating more absences from school.2. Diet and health:Howard (2001) notes that young people from poorer homes have lower intakes of energy, vitamins and minerals. Poor nutrition weakens the immune system and lower's children's energy levels, resulting in more absences and difficulty concentrating in class.Wilkinson (1996) found, among ten year olds, the lower the social class, the higher the rate of hyperactivity, anxiety and conduct disorders.3. Financial support and the costs of education:Lack of financial support means children from poor families have to do without equipment and miss out on experiences to enhance their achievement. Bull (1980) refers to this as 'the costs of free schooling'.Poor children may have to make do with hand-me downs and cheaper but unfashionable equipment resulting in them being stigmatised or bullied by peers. According to Flaherty, fear of stigmatisation may also help to explain why 20% of those eligible for free school meals do not take up their entitlement.Lack of funds also means that children from low-income families often need to work which often has a negative impact on their schoolwork.These financial restrictions explain why many working-class pupils leave school at 16 and few go to university or drop out.