Sophie's World

dayna.gallo
Note by dayna.gallo, updated more than 1 year ago
dayna.gallo
Created by dayna.gallo about 5 years ago
9
1

Description

96-146

Resource summary

Page 1

Class Notes:-Aristotle has a great influence in history because he tutored Alexander the Great- Logic, was first nailed down the rules and how it works and science - thinking about the way you think(metacognition) - What are the best ways to organize our thoughts to get the best solutions - organize the thoughts- Science is statements about the how and why of things - Aristotle - For science to work (his goal) he has to create a system of logic and of precise language -logic is the study of symbols and words are the symbols that point to everything else - how can we use the symbols is an organized way - A system for analyzing thoughts as we come to reliable conclusions - generalizations is all white female americans like pumpkin spice lattes so kayla likes them - generalizations you take something broad and make it specific - sets up the idea of the categories- when you think of something you cannot just think of a plain thing you think of all the details - there are all kinds of information that are attached to every thought- Characteristics> if we take these away and there would not be an actual thing - He wanted to filter out the necessary and the accents- He sorted out organizational levels in nature, ( genies, species, and what not) - as working out the true nature of things he is trying to look at them how they and how they work - Aristotle creates a Syllogism (three statements, the first two leading to a conclusion of the last one) - create a bank of reliable principles using Syllogism, he called them archeas - Physics= physical world- moved into metaphysics (beyond the physical)_ everything has a cause there is nothing that there is not some cause for because there was a cause for that. - Everything has a purpose. There must be causes and purposes in the metaphysical(wisdom) as well - Ethics_ What causes the good life?-Politics_ what causes a good state? - there is a parallel between the physical and metaphysical life - Behind everything there is order. - what is Man's purpose what is the end of Man- Ultimately man happy- use of reason to find the abided contentment= the good life- if you want to fulfill your end you have to understand everything that leads up to that. - Instrumental ends= intermerial goal.... intrinsic end= the one final end of achieving the good life, abided contentment - for us to have the good life, through reason we will justify, wisdom courage and temperament and all the balance of all the virtues. -Virtues are the reasonable balance between two extremes or the golden mean.Aristotle's Categories- 8 categories-- Quantity, Quality, Relation, Place, Date (time), Action, Passivity (passive action), Possession- all these things are incidental, they are not key characteristics. Difference between Plato and Aristotle - Plato is with the theory of ideas, and Aristotle is more concrete and logic - Aristotle tries to understand the universe through the science and such - Plato believed that things that changed were not real, Aristotle believed that the senses were real and reliable Aristotle- used senses- writings like encyclopedia -scientific terminology-study of science -refuted Platos theory of ideasNo Innate ideas-The theory of ideas turned upside down. -the "idea" or "form" makes up the horses characteristics= what we call species - What is common to all horses -the real and the form are inseparable as the body and the soul. -We perceive with our senses -things in human soul are were purely reflections of natural objects-Nothing exists in consciousness that has not first been experienced by the senses. -thoughts and ideas comes from what we have seen or heard, But we also have an innate power of REASON - annate faculty of organizing all sensory impressions into categories and classes- reason is mans most distinguishing characteristic The form of a thing is its specific characteristics- substance= what things are made of, form= its characteristics- concerned with changes in NATURE - every change in nature is a transformation of substances from potential to the actual -the form of a thing then says something about its potentiality as well as limitation - also true for inanimate objectsThe final Cause- there were different types of cause in nature - Why? what was the purpose - "material cause" the actual thing (the cloud) - "efficient cause" what happens (moisture cools) - "formal cause" is the form ( nature of water is to fall to the earth) - "final cause" It rained BECAUSE the plants and animals needed water to grow. -PURPOSE Logic-when we discern things we classify them in various groups and categories - Everything in nature belongs to different categories and subcategories - We classify everything -meticulous organizer set out to clarify our concepts - demonstrated a number of laws that governed conclusions and proofs that were valid. - correlation between substance and form Nature's Scale - natural world divided into two categories- non loving things, no potentiality for change,can only change through external influence - Living things have the potentiality for change. -Living things two categories - plants - Creatures -animals - Humans - When divides the natural phenomena into various categories, criterion is the object's characteristics, or more specifically what it can do, or what it does. - all living things have the ability to absorb nourishment to grow and propagate. - all living CREATURES have the ability to perceive the world around them and move about-top of the scale is man, lives the whole life of nature - Man has the ability to think rationally - God started all the movement in the natural world - God is at the top of natures scale (first mover or god) - itself at rest, but the formal cause of the movement of all natural things Ethics -Man's form has a soul. rational part, plant-like part and animal part-Achieving the good life, man can only achieve happiness by using all his abilities and capabilities - Three forms of happiness, first=happiness is a life of pleasure and enjoyment, second= life as a free and responsible citizen, third= a life as a thinker and philosopher.- All three must be fulfilled at the same time for man to find happiness and fulfillment - rejected all forms of imbalance - Golden mean= must be neither cowardly or rash, but courageous. neither miserly nor extravagant but liberalPolitics- the undesirability of cultivating extremes is also expressed in the view of society. - man by nature is a political animal, without a society around us we are not real people -three good forms of constitution, first= monarchy>kingship, second= aristocracy> larger or smaller set of rulers, third= polity> democracy Views on Women-women are incomplete in some way-unfinished man - child inherits only male characteristics - man= form, woman= substance Hellenism- 300 years- Greek- refers to the period of time and the Greek- dominated culture that prevailed in the Hellenistic kingdoms of Macedonia, Syria, and Egypt religion philosophy and science- Hellenism characterized by the fact that the borders between the various countries were erased. - All the cultures used to worship the national God, but now the different cultures all came together and share religious, philosophical, and scientific ideas. - syncretism= fusion of the creeds, new religions formations arose to that could draw on the gods and the beliefs of many of the old nations. -new religious formations stated that mankind could attain salvation from death. - philosophy was moving in the direction of salvation and serenity - the boundaries between philosophy and religion were gradually erased.- Hellenistic science was influenced by a blend of the knowledge of different cultures. The Cynics-what a whole lot of things I do not need - founded by antisthenes - True happiness is not found in external advantages such as material luxury, political power or good health., true happiness lies in not being dependent on such random and fleeting things. - Happiness is within everyones reach, once attained never lost - Diogenes had everything he desired - People did not need to be concerned with their own health, suffering and death should not concern them - cynical or cynicism have come to mean a snaring disbelief in human sincerity, and they imply insensitively to other people's suffering. - barrel philosophers The stoics- founder zeno - roman culture - everyone was part of the same common sense or "logo" - there exists a universal rightness, natural law - denied any conflict between spirit and matter - monism, one nature - encouraged greek culture and philosophy in Rome - humanism= cicero, view that has the individual as its central focus - all natural process such as sickness and death follow unbreakable law of nature - nothing happens accidentally , everything happens through necessity - all external events are unimportant The Epicureans- the aim of life was to attain the highest possible sensory enjoyment. the highest good is pleasure the greatest evil is pain - way of life to avoid pain in all forms -Epicureans founded school, followers called Epicureans, developed the pleasure ethic combined with atom theory - garden philosophers- pleasurable results in an action must always be weighed against its possible side effects- pleasurable results n the short term must be weighed against the possibility of a greater lore lasting or more intense pleasure in the long term - Pleasure does not always mean sensual pleasure - good life= overcome the fear of death - as long as we are here death does not exist and when it does come we no longer exist, soul atom theory - The gods are not to be feared, death is not to be worried about, good is easy to attain, the fearful is easy to endure - little or no interest in politics and the community - live in the moment , now a days epicurean is negative for someone who lives only for pleasureNeoplasms- -

Show full summary Hide full summary

Similar

Breakdown of Philosophy
rlshindmarsh
Reason and Experience Plans
rlshindmarsh
Who did what now?...Ancient Greek edition
Chris Clark
The Cosmological Argument
Summer Pearce
AS Philosophy Exam Questions
Summer Pearce
Philosophy of Art
mccurryby
Religious Experience
alexandramchugh9
"The knower's perspective is essential in the pursuit of knowledge." To what extent do you agree?
nataliaapedraza
Chapter 6: Freedom vs. Determinism Practice Quiz
Kristen Gardner
The Ontological Argument
daniella0128
Environmental Ethics
Jason Edwards-Suarez