Labelling: To label someone is to attach a meaning or definition to them. e.g. A teacher may label a pupil as either clever or thick
How labelling effects pupils in general: Rebelling, having a teacher give up on them or that teacher always having a bad view on them
Ethnic groups: Gilborn and Youdell found that teachers were quicker to discipline black pupils than others for the same behaviour. They also expect black pupils to have discipline problems. There is evidence of teachers negative labelling in schools. However, research shows that pupils can respond differently- they could be disruptive or withdraw giving a self-fulfilling prophecy, or decide to refuse to accept the label and work hard to prove the teacher wrong. Sewell found that black boys adopted a range of responses to teacher's racist labelling of them as rebellious and anti-school. Some responses led to failure within the school system. internationalists also focus on the different labels teachers to childen from different ethnic backgrounds, which are often based on stereotypes. If blacks and Asians are labelled negatively due to them not being seen as the 'ideal pupil', this could lead o a self-fulfilling prophecy as they will think they aren't going to succeed anyway.
For gender, negative teacher labelling for some boys undermines their confidence and interests in school.