Cell Parts & Genetics

Selam H
Note by , created over 5 years ago

These notes show all the cell parts and their functions.

Selam H
Created by Selam H over 5 years ago
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Page 1

Eukaryote- A complex type of cell with a nucleus and many organelles.         ex: plants and animal cellsProkaryote- A simple type of cell that has no nucleus and was thought to be the first form of life on Earth        ex: bacteria cells Ribosomes- Free floating organelle, recieving direction from DNA to make protiensLysosomes- Sacks filled with digestive enzymes which break down worn cell parts Endoplasmic Reticulum- Folded membranes that process and transport materials in cells; ribosomes attached = rough ER ... ribosomes not attached = smooth ERGolgi Bodies- It stores, packages and distributes the proteins and lipids made in the endoplasmic reticulumChloroplasts- A green organelle that is the site for photosynthesisNucleus- It directs all cell activities and holds DNANucleolus- A structure found in the nucleus where ribosomes are madeCell Wall- A tough protective outer shellCell Membrane- It controls what comes in and out of the cellVacuoles- This organelle stores water and is much larger in plant cellsMitocondria- This is where energy is released during cellular resperationCytoplasm- Gelatin like substance that flows inside cells Chromatin- Heredity material in the nucleus Cytoskeleton- It gives a cell its shape/form and helps it move

█ = Only in Plant Cells█ = Both Plant & Animal Cells █ = Only in Animal Cells


The man known as "the father of genetics" is Gregor Mendel (1822-1884). He was a monk born in Czech Republic. Mendel taught and worked in the garden after returning to monastary. He did many experiments with different types of plants, especially pea plants. These peas were easy to grow and had easily identifiable traits. Mendel created a "pure generation" or true breed generation. He made sure that certain pea plants were only able to self pollinate, eliminating unwanted traits. Between 1856 and 1863, Gregor Mendel grew and tested over 28,000 pea plants.

DNA- (Deoxyribonucleic Acid) A self-replicating or making an exact copy of itself material that carries genetic information. DNA is found in chromosomes (which are found in the nucleus) in the cell.Dominant Traits- A trait that will appear in the offspring if one of the parents contributes itRecesive Traits- A trait in DNA that doesn't express its self as much; it is "covered up" by dominant trait.

The 7 Traits Studied by Mendel: Flower Color: purple or white Flower Position: axil or terminal Pod Shape: inflated or constricted Pod Color: yellow or green  Seed Shape: round or wrinkled Seed Color: yellow or green

What makes up DNA?DNA consists of two strands twisted together. This shape is known as a double helix. The two strands are linked together by four chemical bases known as adenine, thymine, cytosine, and guanine. How does DNA replicate?

Cell Parts

Heredity & Genetics