Earth Space Science Study Guides

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Note on Earth Space Science Study Guides, created by spencer_mees on 03/31/2014.

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6.1 Running Water Key Concepts ·         Water constantly moves among the oceans, the atmosphere, the solid Earth, and the biosphere. This unending circulation of Earth’s water supply is the water cycle  ·         Balance in the water cycle means the average annual precipitation over Earth equals the amount of water that evaporates.  ·         The ability of a stream to erode and transport materials depends largely on its velocity.  ·         While gradient decreases between a stream’s headwaters and mouth, discharge increases. ·         Base level is the lowest point to which a stream can erode its channel. Vocabulary ·         Water cycle - the constant movement of water among the oceans, the atmosphere, geosphere, and the biosphere ·         Infiltration - the movement of surface water into rock or soil through cracks and pore spaces ·         Gradient - the slope of a stream over a certain distance ·         Stream channel - the course that the water in a stream follows ·         Discharge - the quantity of water in a stream that passes a given point in a period of time ·         Tributary - a stream that empties itself into another stream ·         Meander - a looplike bend in the course of a stream 6.2 The Work of Streams Key Concepts ·         Streams generally erode their channels by dissolving soluble material, by lifting loose particles, and by abrasion, or grinding.  ·         Streams transport their load of sediment in three ways: (1) in solution (dissolved load), (2) in suspension (suspended load), and (3) scooting or rolling along the bottom (bed load).  ·         Deposition occurs as streamflow drops below the critical settling velocity of a certain particle size.  ·         There are two general types of stream valleys: narrow V-shaped valleys and wide valleys with flat floors.  ·         Most floods are caused by rapid spring snow melt and storms that bring heavy rains over a large region. ·         Measures to control flooding include the construction of artificial levees, building flood control dams, and placing limits on floodplain development.  ·         A drainage basin is the land area that contributes water to a stream. Vocabulary ·         Bed load - sediment that is carried by a stream along the bottom of its channel ·         Capacity - the total amount of sediment a stream is able to transport ·         Delta - an accumulation of sediment formed where a stream enters a lake or an ocean ·         Natural levee - an elevated landform that parallels a stream and acts to confine its waters, except during floodstage ·         Floodplain - the flat, low-lying portion of a stream valley subject to periodic flooding ·         Flood - occurs when the discharge of a stream becomes so great that it exceeds the carrying capacity of its channel and overflows its banks ·         Drainage basin - the land area that contributes water to a stream ·         Divide - an imaginary line that separates the drainage of two streams; often found along a ridge 6.3 Water beneath the Surface Key Concepts ·         Much of the water in soil seeps downward until it reaches the zone of saturation. The zone of saturation is the area where water fills all of the open spaces in sediment and rock. Groundwater is the water within this zone.  ·         Groundwater moves by twisting and turning through interconnected small openings. The groundwater moves more slowly when the pore spaces are smaller.  ·         A spring forms whenever the water table intersects the ground surface.  ·         Overuse and contamination threatens groundwater supplies in some areas.  ·         Erosion forms most caverns at or below the water table in the zone of saturation.  ·         Karst areas typically have irregular terrain, with many depressions called sinkholes. Vocabulary ·         Zone of saturation - zone where all open spaces in sediment and rock are completely filled with water ·         Groundwater - water underground in the zone of saturation ·         Water table - the upper level of the saturated zone of groundwater ·         Porosity - the volume of open spaces in rock or soil ·         Permeability - a measure of a material’s ability to transmit fluids ·         Aquifer - rock or soil through which groundwater moves easily ·         Spring - a flow of groundwater that emerges naturally at the ground surface ·         Geyser - a hot spring or fountain that ejects water at various intervals ·         Well - an opening bored into the zone of saturation ·         Artesian well - a well in which the water naturally rises above the level of the water table ·         Cavern - a naturally formed underground chamber or series of chambers most commonly produced by solution activity in limestone ·         Travertine - a form of limestone that is deposited by hot springs or as a cave deposit ·         Karst topography - an area that has a land surface or topography with numerous depressions called sinkholes ·         Sinkhole - a depression produced in a region where soluble rock has been removed by groundwater  

20.1 Air Masses Key Concepts ·         An air mass is an immense body of air that is characterized by similar temperatures and amounts of moisture at any given altitude. ·         As an air mass moves, its characteristics can change and so does the weather in the area over which the air mass moves.  ·         Air masses are classified according to their source region, the place where they form.  ·         Much of the weather in North America is influenced by continental polar (cP) and maritime tropical (mT) air masses.  ·         Polar (P) or tropical (T) indicates the temperature of an air mass. Continental (c) or maritime (m) indicates whether the air mass is dry or humid. Vocabulary ·         Air mass - a large body of air that is characterized by similar temperatures and amounts of moisture at any given altitude 20.2 Fronts Key Concepts ·         When two air masses meet, they form a front, which is a boundary that separates two contrasting air masses.   ·         A warm front forms when warm air moves into an area formerly covered by cooler air.   ·         A cold front forms when cold, dense air moves into a region occupied by warmer air.   ·         A stationary front forms when the surface position between two air masses does not move.   ·         An occluded front forms when a cold front overtakes a warm front, producing a complex weather pattern.   ·         A middle-latitude cyclone is a large center of low pressure that generally travels from west to east and causes stormy weather. Vocabulary Front - the boundary between two adjoining air masses having contrasting characteristics Warm front - a front along which a warm air mass overrides a retreating mass of cooler air Cold front - a front along which a cold air mass thrusts beneath a warmer air mass stationary front - a situation in which the surface position of a front does not move; The flow on either side of such a boundary is nearly parallel to the position of the front occluded front - a front formed when a cold front overtakes a warm front; It marks the beginning of the end of a middle-latitude cyclone. 20.3 Severe Storms Key Concepts ·         A thunderstorm generates thunder and lightning and frequently produces gusty winds, heavy rain, and hail. Thunderstorms form when warm, humid air rises in an unstable environment. ·         Tornadoes are violent windstorms that take the form of a rotating column of air called a vortex, which extends downward from a cumulonimbus cloud. Most tornadoes are associated with severe thunderstorms. ·         Hurricanes are whirling tropical cyclones with high winds that sometimes develop over the ocean when water temperatures are warm enough to provide the necessary heat and moisture to fuel the storms. Vocabulary ·         Thunderstorm - a storm produced by a cumulonimbus cloud and always accompanied by lightning and thunder; It is of relatively short duration and usually accompanied by strong wind gusts, heavy rain, and sometimes hail. ·         Tornado - a small, very intense cyclonic storm with exceedingly high winds, most often produced along cold fronts in conjunction with severe thunderstorms ·         Hurricane - a tropical cyclonic storm having winds in excess of 119 kilometers per hour ·         Eye wall - the doughnut-shaped area of intense cumulonimbus development and very strong winds that surrounds the eye of a hurricane ·         Eye - a zone of scattered clouds and calm averaging about 20 kilometers in diameter at the center of a hurricane ·         storm surge - the abnormal rise of the sea along a shore as a result of strong winds Diagrams   Practice Assessment 1.         If an area is experiencing consecutive days of constant weather, this weather is called          A.        air-mass weather. B.         warm-front weather. C.        cold-front weather. D.        occluded-front weather.   2.         An air mass that forms over the Gulf of Mexico is a(n)           A.        cP air mass. B.         mP air mass. C.        cT air mass. D.        mT air mass.   3.         Air masses that have the greatest influence on weather in the midwestern United States are              A.        mT and cT air masses. B.         cP and mT air masses. C.        mP and cP air masses. D.        cT and cP air masses.   4.         Lake-effect snow is associated with a(n)          A.        mP air mass. B.         cP air mass. C.        mT air mass. D.        cT air mass. 5.         “Rain long foretold, long last; short notice, soon past.” The first five words of this weather proverb refer to a(n)           A.        cold front. B.         warm front. C.        anticyclone. D.        tornado.   6.         Which front often produces hours of moderate-to-light precipitation over a large area?         A.        polar B.         maritime C.        cold D.        warm   7.         A thunderstorm is most intense during its           A.        cumulus stage. B.         wave stage. C.        mature stage. D.        dissipating stage.   8.         When a hurricane reaches land, its intensity decreases as the result of                 A.        increase in pressure and temperature. B.         lack of cold, dry air to fuel the storm. C.        successive updrafts into the eye wall. D.        friction and the lack of warm, moist air.   9.         The eye of a hurricane     A.        has the greatest wind speeds. B.         is warmer than the rest of the storm. C.        experiences high pressures. D.        is responsible for heavy precipitation.   10.       An air mass that forms over northern Canada is a     A.        maritime tropical air mass. B.         maritime polar air mass. C.        continental polar air mass. D.        continental tropical air mass.   11.       Which air mass would be characterized by warm and dry air?        A.        maritime tropical air mass B.         maritime polar air mass C.        continental polar air mass D.        continental tropical air mass   12.       Lake-effect snow forms in the northeastern United States and southeastern Canada               A.        directly over the Great Lakes. B.         on the leeward sides of the Great Lakes. C.        on the windward sides of the Great Lakes. D.        along the Atlantic coast.   13.       Indian summer in New York in the autumn is the result of what type of air mass?             A.        maritime tropical air mass B.         maritime polar air mass C.        continental polar air mass D.        continental tropical air mass   14.       What type of front forms when warm air moves into an area with cooler air?                 A.        occluded front B.         stationary front C.        warm front D.        cold front   15.       In the midwestern United States, a middle-latitude cyclone is a      A.        tropical hurricane. B.         exceptionally large tornado. C.        large center of high pressure. D.        large center of low pressure.   16.       In what direction do most weather systems move across the continental United States?         A.        from west to east B.         from east to west C.        from north to south D.        from south to north   17.       What conditions are necessary for the formation of a thunderstorm?        A.        cold, dry unstable air B.         warm, dry stable air C.        warm, humid unstable air D.        cold, humid stable air   18.       In a hurricane, the highest wind speeds and heaviest rainfall occur           A.        inside the eye. B.         in the eye wall. C.        along the hurricane’s leading edge. D.        along the hurricane’s trailing edge.   19.       Tornadoes form       A.        in all thunderstorms. B.         in association with anticyclones. C.        in association with high-pressure centers. D.        in some severe thunderstorms.         Answers 1.      A 2.      D 3.      B 4.      B 5.      B 6.      D 7.      C 8.      D 9.      B 10.  C 11.  D 12.  B 13.  D 14.  C 15.  D 16.  A 17.  C 18.  B 19.  D  

22.1 Early Astronomy Key Concepts ·         In the geocentric model, the moon, sun, and the known planets—Mercury, Venus, Mars, and Jupiter—orbit Earth. ·         In the heliocentric model, Earth and the other planets orbit the sun. ·         Copernicus placed the sun at the center of the solar system, with the planets orbiting around it. ·         Brahe’s observations, especially of Mars, were far more precise than any made previously. ·         Using Brahe’s precise observations, Kepler discovered three laws of planetary motion. ·         Galileo described the behavior of moving objects. ·         Newton was the first to formulate and test the law of universal gravitation. Vocabulary   ·         Astronomy - the scientific study of the universe; It includes the observation and interpretation of celestial bodies and phenomena. ·         Geocentric - describes the concept of an Earth-centered universe ·         Heliocentric - describes the view that the sun is at the center of the solar system ·         Retrograde motion - the apparent westward motion of the planets with respect to the stars ·         Ellipse - an oval ·         Astronomical unit (AU)- average distance from Earth to the sun; 1.5 × 108, or 150 million kilometers 22.2 The Earth-Moon-Sun System Key Concepts   ·         The two main motions of Earth are rotation and revolution. ·         Lunar phases are a result of the motion of the moon and the sunlight that is reflected from its surface. ·         An eclipse can only occur during a new moon or full moon when the moon’s orbit crosses the plane of the ecliptic.   Vocabulary ·         Rotation - the spinning of a body, such as Earth, about its axis ·         Revolution - the motion of one body about another, as Earth about the sun ·         Precession - a slow motion of Earth’s axis that traces out a cone over a period of 26,000 years ·         Perihelion - the point in the orbit of a planet where it is closest to the sun ·         Aphelion - the place in the orbit of a planet where the planet is farthest from the sun ·         Perigee - the point at which the moon is closest to Earth ·         Apogee - the point where the moon is farthest from Earth ·         Phases of the moon - the progression of changes in the moon’s appearance during the month ·         Solar eclipse - an eclipse of the sun; A solar eclipse occurs when the moon moves in a line directly between Earth and the sun, casting a shadow on Earth. ·         Lunar eclipse - an eclipse of the moon; A lunar eclipse occurs when the moon passes through Earth’s shadow.   22.3 Earth’s Moon Key Concepts   ·         Most craters were produced by the impact of rapidly moving debris. ·         Mare, an ancient bed of basaltic lava, originated when asteroids punctured the lunar surface, letting the magma bleed out. ·         The most widely accepted model for the origin of the moon is that when solar system was forming, a body the size of Mars impacted Earth. Vocabulary   ·         Crater - the depression at the summit of a volcano or that which is produced by a meteorite impact ·         Ray - any of a system of bright elongated streaks, sometimes associated with a crater on the moon ·         Mare - the Latin name for the smooth areas of the moon formerly thought to be seas ·         Rille - long channel associated with lunar maria; A rille looks similar to a valley or a trench. ·         Lunar regolith - a thin, gray layer on the surface of the moon, consisting of loosely compacted, fragmented material believed to have been formed by repeated impacts of meteorites

17.1 Atmosphere Characteristics Key Concepts ·      Weather is constantly changing, and it refers to the state of the atmosphere at any given time or place. Climate is the sum of all statistical weather information that helps describe a place or region. ·      Water vapor is the source of all clouds and precipitation. Like carbon dioxide, it absorbs heat given off by Earth as well as some solar energy. ·      If ozone did not filter most UV radiation, Earth would be uninhabitable to many living organisms. ·      The atmosphere thins as you travel away from Earth, until there are too few gas molecules to detect ·      The atmosphere can be divided vertically into four layers by temperature (troposphere, stratosphere, mesosphere, & thermosphere) ·      Seasonal changes occur because Earth’s position relative to the sun continually changes as it travels along its orbit. Vocabulary ·      Ozone – a molecule of oxygen containing 3 oxygen atoms ·      Troposphere – the lowermost layer of the atmosphere; It is generally characterized by decrease in temperature with height. ·      Stratosphere – the layer of the atmosphere immediately above the troposphere, characterized by increasing temperatures with height, due to concentration of the ozone. ·      Mesosphere – the layer of the atmosphere immediately above the stratosphere and characterized by decreasing temperatures with height. ·      Thermosphere – the region of the atmosphere immediately above the mesosphere and characterized by increasing temperatures due to absorption of very short-wave solar energy oxygen. ·      Summer Solstice – the solstice that occurs on June 21 or 22 ·      Winter Solstice - the solstice that occurs on December 21 or 22. ·      Aphelion – the place in orbit where the planet is furthest from the sun ·      Perihelion – the place in orbit where the planet is closest to the sun. 17.2 Heating & Atmosphere Key Concepts ·      Heat is the transfer of energy between two objects resulting from differences in their temperatures. Temperature is a measure of the average kinetic energy of individual particles. ·      Three mechanisms of heat transfer are conduction, convection, and radiation. Unlike conduction and convection, radiant energy can travel through the vacuum of space. ·      All objects, at any temperature, emit radiant energy. Hotter objects radiate more total energy per unit area than colder objects do. The hottest radiating bodies produce the shortest wavelengths of maximum radiation. Objects that are good absorbers of radiation are good emitters as well. ·      Objects can absorb, transmit, scatter, or reflect radiation that strikes them. Vocabulary ·      Temperature – a measure of the average kinetic energy of individual atoms or molecules in a substance. ·      Conduction – the transfer of heat through matter by molecular activity; Energy is transferred through collisions from one molecule to another. ·      Convection – the transfer of heat by the movement of a mass or substance; It can take place only in fluids. ·      Radiation – the transfer of energy (heat through space by electromagnetic waves). ·      Reflection – the process whereby light bounces back from an object at the same angle at which it encounters a surface and with the same intensity. ·      Scattering  - redirecting (in all directions) of light by small particles and gas molecules in the atmosphere; The result is more light rays with weaker intensity. ·      Greenhouse Effect – the heating of Earth’s surface and atmosphere from solar radiation being absorbed and emitted by the atmosphere, mainly by water vapor and carbon dioxide 17.3 Temperature Controls Key Concepts ·      Factors other than latitude that exert a strong influence on temperature include heating of land and water, altitude, geographic position, cloud cover, and ocean currents. ·      Land heats more rapidly and to higher temperatures than water. Land also cools more rapidly and to lower temperatures than water. Vocabulary ·      Albedo – the fraction of total radiation that is reflected back by a surface. ·      Isotherm – a line connecting points of equal temperature.

17.1 Atmosphere Characteristics Key Concepts ·      Weather is constantly changing, and it refers to the state of the atmosphere at any given time or place. Climate is the sum of all statistical weather information that helps describe a place or region. ·      Water vapor is the source of all clouds and precipitation. Like carbon dioxide, it absorbs heat given off by Earth as well as some solar energy. ·      If ozone did not filter most UV radiation, Earth would be uninhabitable to many living organisms. ·      The atmosphere thins as you travel away from Earth, until there are too few gas molecules to detect ·      The atmosphere can be divided vertically into four layers by temperature (troposphere, stratosphere, mesosphere, & thermosphere) ·      Seasonal changes occur because Earth’s position relative to the sun continually changes as it travels along its orbit. Vocabulary ·      Ozone – a molecule of oxygen containing 3 oxygen atoms ·      Troposphere – the lowermost layer of the atmosphere; It is generally characterized by decrease in temperature with height. ·      Stratosphere – the layer of the atmosphere immediately above the troposphere, characterized by increasing temperatures with height, due to concentration of the ozone. ·      Mesosphere – the layer of the atmosphere immediately above the stratosphere and characterized by decreasing temperatures with height. ·      Thermosphere – the region of the atmosphere immediately above the mesosphere and characterized by increasing temperatures due to absorption of very short-wave solar energy oxygen. ·      Summer Solstice – the solstice that occurs on June 21 or 22 ·      Winter Solstice - the solstice that occurs on December 21 or 22. ·      Aphelion – the place in orbit where the planet is furthest from the sun ·      Perihelion – the place in orbit where the planet is closest to the sun. 17.2 Heating & Atmosphere Key Concepts ·      Heat is the transfer of energy between two objects resulting from differences in their temperatures. Temperature is a measure of the average kinetic energy of individual particles. ·      Three mechanisms of heat transfer are conduction, convection, and radiation. Unlike conduction and convection, radiant energy can travel through the vacuum of space. ·      All objects, at any temperature, emit radiant energy. Hotter objects radiate more total energy per unit area than colder objects do. The hottest radiating bodies produce the shortest wavelengths of maximum radiation. Objects that are good absorbers of radiation are good emitters as well. ·      Objects can absorb, transmit, scatter, or reflect radiation that strikes them. Vocabulary ·      Temperature – a measure of the average kinetic energy of individual atoms or molecules in a substance. ·      Conduction – the transfer of heat through matter by molecular activity; Energy is transferred through collisions from one molecule to another. ·      Convection – the transfer of heat by the movement of a mass or substance; It can take place only in fluids. ·      Radiation – the transfer of energy (heat through space by electromagnetic waves). ·      Reflection – the process whereby light bounces back from an object at the same angle at which it encounters a surface and with the same intensity. ·      Scattering  - redirecting (in all directions) of light by small particles and gas molecules in the atmosphere; The result is more light rays with weaker intensity. ·      Greenhouse Effect – the heating of Earth’s surface and atmosphere from solar radiation being absorbed and emitted by the atmosphere, mainly by water vapor and carbon dioxide 17.3 Temperature Controls Key Concepts ·      Factors other than latitude that exert a strong influence on temperature include heating of land and water, altitude, geographic position, cloud cover, and ocean currents. ·      Land heats more rapidly and to higher temperatures than water. Land also cools more rapidly and to lower temperatures than water. Vocabulary ·      Albedo – the fraction of total radiation that is reflected back by a surface. ·      Isotherm – a line connecting points of equal temperature.

Chapter 6

Chapter 20

Chapter 22

Chapter 17

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