One child policy, China- Population Control Case Study

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AQA GCSE Human Geography Population Control Policy China

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One child policy, China- Management of rapid population growth   The original policy ·         It was first introduced in 1979 ·         Must not marry until late 20’s ·         Can only have one child ·         Must be sterilised after the first child, or abort all future pregnancies ·         10% salary increase for only having one child ·         Priority housing, pensions and family benefits for those with 1 child Penalties for not following the rules ·         Large fine (that would bankrupt many families) ·         10% salary cut ·         Have to pay for education and healthcare ·         Second child born abroad would not be allowed to become citizens of China Changes in the 1990’s ·         Parents with no brothers/ sisters can have more than one child- families were worried about their name dying out, also there needs to be enough young people to look after aging population ·         People living in rural areas can have more than 1 child- they are needed to help on farms etc ·         Ethnic minorities can have more than 1 child, minorities make up a very small amount of China’s population, so it wouldn’t make a big difference ·         Couples don’t need permission to have a first child ·         Following Sichuan earthquake the rules were relaxed to help the population recover Benefits of the policy ·         With less time needed to look after kids, women have been able to concentrate on their careers ·         Repeats of famines like in the 1970’s have not happened ·         400 million fewer births have occurred since the policy was enforced Problems with the policy ·         Still 1 million more births than deaths every 5 weeks ·         Increasing imbalance of men/ women as families want boys to pass the name on ·         Some women have been forced to have abortions very late in their pregnancies by ‘granny police’ who monitor young women ·         There has been many young girls killed so that their families can have a boy ·         Children with no siblings get lots of attention, and become known as ‘little emperors’

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