Thar Desert- Hot desert LEDC Case Study


AQA GCSE Physical Geography Living World Hot Desert Case Study
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Thar desert- Hot desert LEDC Case Study Facts: Rainfall is between 120-240mm per year Summer temperatures can reach 53C Desert has mobile sand dunes There are clumps of thorn forest Soil is infertile Water drains away quickly after rainfall Challenges: Population pressure - Most densely populated desert in the world -Population is still increasing -More people using land, extracting water and grazing animals -This all leads to over cultivation and over grazing Water management -Excessive irrigation means land is waterlogged -Water has evaporated, leaving salts on the ground which have killed plants (Salinisation) Soil erosion -Vegetation has been damaged by over grazing -Less vegetation means nothing is holding the soil, so wind can move the sand dunes Fuel shortages -The lack of vegetation means that there isn't enough firewood -This has led to people burning manure instead of using it as fertiliser, so there is a lower crop yield Tourism -Whilst it brings in extra money and employment to the area, tourists could damage the ecosystems in the area by bringing cars etc if they are not properly managed Economic opportunities in the desert Subsistence farming -Most people in the desert are subsistence farmers -It means that they only grow enough to feed themselves -The Kohils tribe are hunter gatherers Irrigation and commercial farming -In some parts of the desert people get water from the Gandhi Canal to water their crops -Commercial farming covers 3,500 km ^2 of land in Jodhpur -The Gandhi Canal has also provided drinking water Mining -Reserves of gypsum are used to make cement, pottery and paper whitener -Also limestone to help make steel Tourism -Desert safaris are becoming popular among wealthy Indians -Provides jobs for local people as guides etc Management (addressing the challenges in a sustainable way) 1977 Desert Development Programme started to develop land and conserve water to save the ecosystems Afforestation -Many Psosopis trees are being planted as they make good fire wood, have pods for animal feed, and provide shelter -This helps to stabilise the sand dunes, too Stabilising sand dunes -Ariel re-seeding helps to protect soil and the sand from being moved by the wind -Vegetation also adds nutrients to the soil to encourage crop growth Thar Desert National Park -3,000km^2 of land -Endangered animals are protected Water management -Traditional water harvesting structures (Taankas) have been put in homes to store monsoon rain

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