Global History Regents Review Notes (Europe)

Jen Molte
Note by Jen Molte, updated more than 1 year ago
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Review notes for the European part of what you need to know for the Global History & Geography Regents!

Resource summary

Page 1

Holy Roman Empire In the early middle ages, Charlemagne brought France & Germany under his rule Charlemagne death --> empire dissolved into separate states 936 Duke Otto I of Saxony took title of King of Germany Successors of Otto took title of “Holy Roman Emperor” worked closely with the church Emperors would have conflicts with the Pope over appointment of church officials Roman because they saw selves as heirs to emperors of ancient Rome Holy because crowned by pope HREmperors often decided who became bishops & abbots within their realm Pope Gregory VII As Cluny reforms strengthened, however the Pope wants to end this Determined to make Ch. Independent of secular rulers Banned practice of lay investiture: where a emperor or lay person (nonmember of clergy) presented bishops with ring & staff that symbolized their office Claimed only pope had that right

Catholic Church Monarchs tried centralizing power; government bureaucracy; developed system of taxes; built a standing army Had their own courts, collected their own taxes and fielded their own armies Had as much, or more power than monarchs Loosely organized system of government in which local lords governed their own lands but owed military service and other support to a greater lord

FedualismNiccolo Machiavelli Renaissance writer - wrote The Prince (1513) Combined personal experience of politics w/ his knowledge of the past to offer a guide to rulers on how to gain and maintain power Urged rulers to do whatever necessary methods to achieve goals Crusades Saw himself as an enemy of oppression and corruption; others said influenced by devil Intent: to free the Holy Land Motives of Crusade: On and off for 200 years First Crusade: Christian knights captured Jerusalem (1099) Muslims sought to destroy Christian kingdoms Hope to win wealth & land Escape troubles at home Adventure Pope Urban II hoped to increase power in Euro & heal schism (split) between Roman & Byzantine churches

Result of the Crusades Encouraged the growth of a money economy Increased trade Increased power of feudal monarchs (e.g.: rulers won rights to levy taxes to support crusades) Brought papal power to greatest height though short lived 1456 - printed first complete edition of the Bible using the first printing press and printing inks in the West

Johann Gutenberg (Mainz, Germany) China for paper making methods and Chinese & Koreans for movable metal type Printing Revolution begun More books caused more pepople to learn how to read , and increased the access to a broad range of knowledge from medicine to astrology to mining

Knights - Code of Chivalry

Code of conduct

Knights required to be brave, loyal & true to their word

Agreed not to ask another knight before opponent has had a chance to put on armor

Dictated to treat captured knights will or release captured if captured promise to pay his ransom

Applied to nobles only

Placed women on pedestal, women to be protected and cherished

Marco Polo

Venetian - called the "Price of Liars"

1271 - set out for China with father & uncle

told stories about the wonders of Chinese civilization

Reconquists

Campaign to drive Muslims from Spain

Christian warriors 1085 recaptured city of Toledo

1300 - controlled entire Iberian Peninsula except Grenada

1469 - Isabella of Castile married Ferdinand of Aragon; combined forces of the rulers opened way for unified state

1492 - Reconquista complete

Isabella & Ferdinand tried imposing unity on diverse people, they joined forces with the towns people against powerful nobles

Was religious tolerated under Muslim Rule, Isabella ended it b/c wanted rel. unity

Isabella launched against Jews & Muslims and wanted people to convert to Christianity

Thirty Year War

Rel & pol causes

Sparked when rebellious nobles threw two royal officials out a window

Ferdinand elected as HREmperor

With Spain, Poland & other Cath States, Ferdinand tried to roll back Reformation

Defeated Bohemians & their Protestant allies

Alarmed, prot powers sent troops into Germany

Fighting caused villages to be burned, crops were destroyed and people were killed without mercy (depopulation)

1648 - signed Peace of Westphalia - aimed to create general Euro peace & an attempt to settle other international problems

Europe

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