In an outbreak situation molecular epidemiology is used to______
ascertain whether the isolates have a common or independent source.
ascertain whether the isolates have a evolved from control specimens
identify novel SNP
In molecular testing of microorganisms what are the analyses?
genome, transcriptome, proteome
genome, transcriptome, antibodies
lipids, transcriptome, proteome
sugars, lipids, amino acids
Match an organism with a resistance gene target.
Staphylococcus aureus mecA; Enterococcus: vanA, vanB, and vanC; M.tuberculosis: katG, inhA
Staphylococcus aureus vanA, vanB, and vanC; Enterococcus: mecA; M.tuberculosis: katG, inhA
Staphylococcus aureus vanA, vanB, and vanC; Enterococcus: katG, inhA; M.tuberculosis: mecA
Staphylococcus aureus katG, inhA ; Enterococcus: vanA, vanB, and vanC; M.tuberculosis: mecA
What are the primary molecular methods used in clinical microbiology laboratory?
PCR, real time PCR, reverse transcriptase PCR, pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE)
PCR, real time PCR, reverse transcriptase PCR,
PCR, real time PCR, reverse transcriptase PCR, sequencing,
Bisulfite sequencing, PCR, real time PCR, reverse transcriptase PCR, Bisulfite sequencing,
Which of the following organisms is bardes to lyse?
Mycobacteria and fungi
Parasites and Bacteria
Parasites and Mycoplasma
Fungi and Mycoplasma
Removal of RNases is essential for analysis of with of the following targets?
Which of the following PCR inhibitors is present in the sputum?
It is easier to isolate nucleic acid form the stool the the plasma.
In a PCR procedure a sensitivity control is used to show____
lower level of detection
lack of contamination
quantity of positive product
lack of inhibition
B. pertussis and B. parapertussis target genes are IS481 and IS1001.
Which of the following is a genotypic method for typing organisms?
Pulsed field gel electrophoresis
Pulsed field gel electrophoresis has been performed on two isolates of Escherichia coli that have been isolated from the blood of newborns in the same neonatal unit. The banding pattern of the two isolates differed by two bands. Which of the following is the correct interpretation of these results?
The isolates are indistinguishable.
The isolates are closely related.
The isolates are possibly related.
The isolates are different.
rapidly spreading outbreak of an infectious disease
a disease that sweeps across wide geographical areas
collection and analysis of environmental, microbiological, and clinical data
Primary resistance mutations _______
affect drug sensitivity but may slow viral growth
increase drug sensitivity
increase drug uptake
Secondary-resistance mutations ______
compensate for the primary-resistance growth defects
do not compensate for the primary-resistance growth defects
cancel primary-resistance growth defects
Which of the following is the molecular target for most epidemiological investigations of Mycobacterium tuberculosis?
Which of the following typing methods has high typing capacity, discriminatory power, reproducibility, and moderate ease of use?
DNA is isolated from a test organism and cut with restriction enzymes. The fragments are ligated to adapters that are complementary to primers that are added to perform a PCR. In a second PCR, selective primers are used to amplify some of the amplicons produced in the first PCR. Finally, the products of the second PCR are separated by gel electrophoresis and analyzed. Which of the following methods was described?
Restriction fragment length polymorphism
Amplified fragment length polymorphism
Arbitrarily primed PCR
In the interpretation of pulsed field gel electrophoresis patterns, what is the maximum number of bands that can differ between two organisms before those organisms are determined to be different?
A PCR assay that uses short primers that amplify random sequences found throughout the genome of the test organism is what variation of PCR?
Repetitive extragenic palindromic
Enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus
The ability of a typing method to distinguish between unrelated strains is which of the following criteria?
Ease of interpretation
When a typing method is repeated and the results are the same each time, the method has high:
ease of test performance
Which of the following genes is a target in molecular-based assays and confers resistance to vancomycin in the enterococci?
A PCR assay on DNA isolated from a nasopharyngeal swab was performed with the following results: amplification using primers to IS481 was positive and using primers to IS1001 was negative. All controls were acceptable. Which of the following organisms was present in this sample?
A PCR assay using primers specific for the autolysin (lytA) gene was performed on a sputum specimen from a 10-year-old girl. The specimen was positive, and all controls were acceptable. Which of the following is the best interpretation of these results?
Definitive diagnosis of Streptococcus pneumoniae pneumonia
Streptococcus pneumoniae is present but clinical significance questionable
Mycobacterium tuberculosis detected and girl should be isolated
Patient has Chlamydophila pneumoniae pneumonia
Which of the following molecular-based assay and detected organism combinations has been FDA-approved?
NASBA for hepatitis C virus
TMA for Mycobacterium tuberculosis
Hybridization protection assay for group A streptococci
Sequencing for Neisseria gonorrhoeae
PCR with RFLP analysis and reverse hybridization of the 5′ untranslated region of hepatitis C virus is the principle of which of the following commercial assays?
Cleavase fragment length polymorphism
HIV genotyping is performed for which of the following reasons?
Monitor development of antiretroviral drug resistance
Confirmation of HIV infection
Quantitate amount of HIV in the patient
Determine source of HIV
Which of the following genes is the target in molecular-based assays that are used to quantitate the amount of HIV in a patient?
Which of the following molecular-based assays is FDA-approved for the detection of human papillomavirus in endocervical specimens?
Which of the following organisms was one of the first targets for the development and implementation of molecular-based assays used for direct detection of the organism in a clinical specimen?