Bio test #2 actual

Joseph Spear
Quiz by Joseph Spear, updated more than 1 year ago
Joseph Spear
Created by Joseph Spear over 3 years ago
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Quiz on Bio test #2 actual, created by Joseph Spear on 02/14/2018.

Resource summary

Question 1

Question
The predatory bacterium Bdellovibrio bacteriophorus drills into a prey bacterium and, once inside, digests it. In an attack upon a gram-negative bacterium that has a slimy cell covering, what is the correct sequence of structures penetrated by B. bacteriophorus on its way to the prey's cytoplasm?
Answer
  • A) phospholipid membrane, capsule, peptidoglycan, lipopolysaccharide membrane
  • B) lipopolysaccharide membrane, peptidoglycan, capsule, phospholipid membrane
  • C) lipopolysaccharide membrane, capsule, peptidoglycan, phospholipid membrane
  • D) capsule, lipopolysaccharide membrane, peptidoglycan, phospholipid membrane

Question 2

Question
Jams, jellies, preserves, honey, and other foods with high sugar content hardly ever become contaminated by bacteria, even when the food containers are left open at room temperature. This is because bacteria that encounter such an environment ________.
Answer
  • A) undergo death as a result of water loss from the cell
  • B) are unable to metabolize the glucose or fructose, and thus starve to death
  • C) are obligate anaerobes
  • D) are unable to swim through these thick and viscous materials

Question 3

Question
Use the information in the following paragraph to answer the question. A hypothetical bacterium swims among human intestinal contents until it finds a suitable location on the intestinal lining. It adheres to the intestinal lining using a feature that also protects it from phagocytes, bacteriophages, and dehydration. Fecal matter from a human in whose intestine this bacterium lives can spread the bacterium, even after being mixed with water and boiled. The bacterium is not susceptible to the penicillin family of antibiotics. It contains no plasmids and relatively little peptidoglycan. This bacterium's ability to survive in a human who is taking penicillin pills may be due to the presence of ________.
Answer
  • A) gram-negative cell wall
  • B) peptidoglycan in the cell wall
  • C) lipopolysaccharides in the cytoplasm
  • D) long polypeptides in the cell wall

Question 4

Question
Use the information in the following paragraph to answer the question. A hypothetical bacterium swims among human intestinal contents until it finds a suitable location on the intestinal lining. It adheres to the intestinal lining using a feature that also protects it from phagocytes, bacteriophages, and dehydration. Fecal matter from a human in whose intestine this bacterium lives can spread the bacterium, even after being mixed with water and boiled. The bacterium is not susceptible to the penicillin family of antibiotics. It contains no plasmids and relatively little peptidoglycan. Adherence to the intestinal lining by this bacterium is due to its possession of ________.
Answer
  • A) fimbriae
  • B) pili
  • C) a capsule
  • D) a flagellum

Question 5

Question
Use the information in the following paragraph to answer the question. A hypothetical bacterium swims among human intestinal contents until it finds a suitable location on the intestinal lining. It adheres to the intestinal lining using a feature that also protects it from phagocytes, bacteriophages, and dehydration. Fecal matter from a human in whose intestine this bacterium lives can spread the bacterium, even after being mixed with water and boiled. The bacterium is not susceptible to the penicillin family of antibiotics. It contains no plasmids and relatively little peptidoglycan. Which of the following statements about the cell wall is most probable?
Answer
  • A) Its innermost layer is composed of a phospholipid bilayer.
  • B) After it has been subjected to Gram staining, the cell should remain purple.
  • C) It has an outer membrane of lipopolysaccharide.
  • D) It is mostly composed of a complex, cross-linked polysaccharide.

Question 6

Question
Use the information in the following paragraph to answer the question. A hypothetical bacterium swims among human intestinal contents until it finds a suitable location on the intestinal lining. It adheres to the intestinal lining using a feature that also protects it from phagocytes, bacteriophages, and dehydration. Fecal matter from a human in whose intestine this bacterium lives can spread the bacterium, even after being mixed with water and boiled. The bacterium is not susceptible to the penicillin family of antibiotics. It contains no plasmids and relatively little peptidoglycan. In which feature should one be able to locate a complete chromosome of this bacterium?
Answer
  • A) mitochondrion
  • B) nucleoid
  • C) nucleus
  • D) plasmid

Question 7

Question
Which two species should have much more phospholipid, in the form of bilayers, in their cytoplasms than most other bacteria?
Answer
  • A) species A and B
  • B) species A and C
  • C) species B and E
  • D) species C and D

Question 8

Question
Which species is capable of directed movement?
Answer
  • A) species A
  • B) species B
  • C) species C
  • D) species D

Question 9

Question
How many of these species probably have a cell wall that consists partly of an outer membrane of lipopolysaccharide?
Answer
  • A) only one species
  • B) two species
  • C) three species
  • D) four species

Question 10

Question
Which of the following observations about flagella is accurate and is consistent with the scientific conclusion that the flagella from eukaryotes and bacteria evolved independently?
Answer
  • A) The flagella of both eukaryotes and bacteria are made of the same protein, but the configuration is different.
  • B) The mechanics of movement and protein structure are the same in these flagella, but there are significant genetic differences.
  • C) Although the mechanism of movement in both flagella is the same, the protein that accomplishes the movement is different.
  • D) The protein structure and the mechanism of movement in eukaryotes flagella are different from those of bacteria flagella.

Question 11

Question
Which of the following observations about flagella is accurate and is consistent with the scientific conclusion that the flagella from archaea and bacteria evolved independently?
Answer
  • A) The flagella of the two groups differ in size.
  • B) The protein structures in the flagella are different.
  • C) The mechanisms of rotation are similar.
  • D) Both groups have flagella like those found in eukaryotes.

Question 12

Question
In a bacterium that possesses antibiotic resistance and the potential to persist through very adverse conditions, such as freezing, drying, or high temperatures, DNA should be located within, or be part of, which structures?
Answer
  • A) nucleoid, fimbriae, and plasmids
  • B) endospore, fimbriae, and plasmids
  • C) fimbriae, nucleoid, and endospore
  • D) plasmids, nucleoid, and endospore

Question 13

Question
Chloramphenicol is an antibiotic that targets prokaryotic (70S) ribosomes, but not eukaryotic (80S) ribosomes. Which of these questions stems from this observation, plus an understanding of eukaryotic origins?
Answer
  • A) Can chloramphenicol also be used to control human diseases that are caused by archaeans?
  • B) Can chloramphenicol pass through the capsules possessed by many cyanobacteria?
  • C) If chloramphenicol inhibits prokaryotic ribosomes, should it not also inhibit mitochondrial ribosomes?
  • D) Why aren't prokaryotic ribosomes identical to eukaryotic ribosomes?

Question 14

Question
Termites eat wood, but many do not produce enzymes themselves that will digest the cellulose in the wood. Instead, some termites house a complex community of protozoa, bacteria, and archaea that could help digest the cellulose. Imagine an experiment that fed termites either wood only or wood and antibiotics, and then measured the amount of energy extracted from the wood. If both groups gained equal amounts of energy, which of the conclusions is the most logical?
Answer
  • A) We would conclude that the protozoa contributed to digestion of cellulose and lignin.
  • B) We would conclude that the archaea contributed to digestion of cellulose and lignin.
  • C) We would conclude that the bacteria did not contribute to digestion of cellulose and lignin.
  • D) We would conclude that none of the three groups were needed to digest cellulose and lignin.

Question 15

Question
According to the endosymbiotic theory, why was it adaptive for the larger (host) cell to keep the engulfed cell alive, rather than digesting it as food?
Answer
  • A) The engulfed cell provided the host cell with adenosine triphosphate (ATP).
  • B) The engulfed cell provided the host cell with carbon dioxide.
  • C) The engulfed cell allowed the host cell to metabolize glucose.
  • D) The host cell was able to survive anaerobic conditions with the engulfed cell alive.

Question 16

Question
The chloroplasts of land plants are thought to have been derived according to which evolutionary sequence?
Answer
  • A) cyanobacteria → green algae → land plants
  • B) cyanobacteria → green algae → fungi → land plants
  • C) red algae → brown algae → green algae → land plants
  • D) cyanobacteria → red algae → green algae → land plants

Question 17

Question
A particular species of protist has obtained a chloroplast via secondary endosymbiosis. You know this because the chloroplasts ________.
Answer
  • A) have nuclear and cyanobacterial genes
  • B) are exceptionally small
  • C) have three or four membranes
  • D) have only a single pigment

Question 18

Question
All protists are ________.
Answer
  • A) unicellular
  • B) eukaryotic
  • C) symbionts
  • D) mixotrophic

Question 19

Question
An individual mixotroph loses its plastids, yet continues to survive. Which of the following most likely accounts for its continued survival?
Answer
  • A) It relies on photosystems that float freely in its cytosol.
  • B) It must have gained extra mitochondria when it lost its plastids.
  • C) It engulfs organic material by phagocytosis or by absorption.
  • D) It has an endospore.

Question 20

Question
Which of the following have chloroplasts (or structures since evolved from chloroplasts) thought to be derived from ancestral green algae?
Answer
  • A) stramenopiles
  • B) apicomplexans
  • C) dinoflagellates
  • D) chlorarachniophytes

Question 21

Question
Use the following information to answer the question. Paulinella chromatophora is one of the few cercozoans that is autotrophic, carrying out aerobic photosynthesis with its two elongated "chromatophores." The chromatophores are contained within vesicles of the host cell, and each is derived from a cyanobacterium, though not the same type of cyanobacterium that gave rise to the chloroplasts of algae and plants. Which process could have allowed the nucleomorphs of chlorarachniophytes to be reduced, without the net loss of any genetic information?
Answer
  • A) conjugation
  • B) horizontal gene transfer
  • C) phagocytosis
  • D) meiosis

Question 22

Question
Use the following information to answer the question. Paulinella chromatophora is one of the few cercozoans that is autotrophic, carrying out aerobic photosynthesis with its two elongated "chromatophores." The chromatophores are contained within vesicles of the host cell, and each is derived from a cyanobacterium, though not the same type of cyanobacterium that gave rise to the chloroplasts of algae and plants. The closest living relative of P. chromatophora is the heterotroph P. ovalis. P. ovalis uses threadlike pseudopods to capture its prey, which it digests internally. Which of the following, if observed, would be the best reason for relabeling P. chromatophora as a mixotroph instead of an autotroph?
Answer
  • A) a pigmented central vacuole, surrounded by a nucleomorph
  • B) a vacuole with food inside
  • C) a secretory vesicle
  • D) a contractile vacuole

Question 23

Question
Which of the following could occur only after plants moved from the oceans to land?
Answer
  • A) Animals could also move onto land because there were opportunities for new food sources.
  • B) Animals could also move onto land because they had easier access to nitrogen.
  • C) Cyanobacteria could also move onto land because their host plants occurred there.
  • D) Plants in the oceans were able to evolve forms that lived in much deeper parts of the oceans.

Question 24

Question
2) According to the fossil record, plants colonized terrestrial habitats ________.
Answer
  • A) in conjunction with insects that pollinated them
  • B) in conjunction with fungi that helped provide them with nutrients from the soil
  • C) to escape abundant herbivores in the oceans
  • D) only about 150 million years ago

Question 25

Question
The most direct ancestors of land plants were probably ________.
Answer
  • A) kelp (brown alga) that formed large beds near the shorelines
  • B) green algae
  • C) photosynthesizing prokaryotes (cyanobacteria)
  • D) liverworts and mosses

Question 26

Question
4) About 450 million years ago, the terrestrial landscape on Earth would have ________.
Answer
  • A) looked very similar to that of today, with flowers, grasses, shrubs, and trees
  • B) been completely bare rock, with little pools that contained cyanobacteria and protists
  • C) been covered with tall forests in swamps that would become today's coal
  • D) had non-vascular, green plants similar to liverworts forming green mats on rock

Question 27

Question
What evidence do paleobotanists look for that indicates the movement of plants from water to land?
Answer
  • A) waxy cuticle to decrease evaporation from leaves
  • B) loss of structures that produce spores
  • C) sporopollenin to inhibit evaporation from leaves
  • D) remnants of chloroplasts from photosynthesizing cells

Question 28

Question
6) Which of these events, based on plant fossils, came last (most recently)?
Answer
  • A) extensive growth of gymnosperm forests
  • B) colonization of land by early liverworts and mosses
  • C) rise and diversification of angiosperms
  • D) carboniferous swamps with giant horsetails and lycophytes

Question 29

Question
Why have biologists hypothesized that the first land plants had a low, sprawling growth habit?
Answer
  • A) They were tied to the water for reproduction, thus needing to remain in close contact with the moist soil.
  • B) The ancestors of land plants, green algae, lacked the structural support to stand erect in air.
  • C) Land animals of that period were small and could not pollinate tall plants.
  • D) There was less competition for space, so they simply spread out flat.

Question 30

Question
Spores and seeds have basically the same function—dispersal—but are vastly different because spores ________.
Answer
  • A) have a protective outer covering; seeds do not
  • B) have an embryo; seeds do not
  • C) have stored nutrition; seeds do not
  • D) are unicellular; seeds are not

Question 31

Question
Retaining the zygote on the living gametophyte of land plants ________.
Answer
  • A) protects the zygote from herbivores
  • B) evolved concurrently with pollen
  • C) helps in dispersal of the zygote
  • D) allows it to be nourished by the parent plant

Question 32

Question
The structural integrity of bacteria is to peptidoglycan as the structural integrity of plant spores is to ________.
Answer
  • A) lignin
  • B) cellulose
  • C) secondary compounds
  • D) sporopollenin

Question 33

Question
According to our current knowledge of plant evolution, which group of organisms should feature cell division most similar to that of land plants?
Answer
  • A) some unicellular green algae
  • B) some cyanobacteria
  • C) some charophytes
  • D) some red algae

Question 34

Question
Which taxon is essentially equivalent to the "embryophytes"?
Answer
  • A) Plantae
  • B) Pterophyta
  • C) Bryophyta
  • D) Charophycea

Question 35

Question
If the kingdom Plantae is someday expanded to include the charophytes (stoneworts), then the shared derived characteristics of the kingdom will include ________.
Answer
  • A) rings of cellulose-synthesizing complexes and ability to synthesize sporopollenin
  • B) rings of cellulose-synthesizing complexes, chlorophylls a and b, and alternation of generations
  • C) rings of cellulose-synthesizing complexes, alternation of generations, and ability to synthesize sporopollenin
  • D) rings of cellulose-synthesizing complexes, chlorophylls a and b, cell walls of cellulose, and ability to synthesize sporopollenin

Question 36

Question
Which of the following environmental factors probably helped early plants to successfully colonize land?
Answer
  • A) a decreased availability of CO2
  • B) relatively few competitors for light
  • C) an increased availability of symbiotic partners
  • D) air's relative lack of support, compared to water's support

Question 37

Question
A student encounters a pondweed that appears to be a charophyte. Which of the following features would help the student determine whether the sample comes from a charophyte or from some other type of green alga?
Answer
  • A) molecular structure of enzymes inside the chloroplasts and presence of phragmoplasts
  • B) molecular structure of enzymes inside the chloroplasts and rings of cellulose-synthesizing complexes
  • C) structure of sperm cells and presence of phragmoplasts
  • D) structure of sperm cells, presence of phragmoplasts, and rings of cellulose-synthesizing complexes

Question 38

Question
In the figure, which number represents the mature gametophyte?
Answer
  • 1
  • 3
  • 7
  • 11

Question 39

Question
In the figure, which number represents an embryo?
Answer
  • 1
  • 3
  • 7
  • 11

Question 40

Question
In the figure, meiosis is most likely to be represented by which number(s)?
Answer
  • 2
  • 4
  • 2 and 8
  • 10 and 12

Question 41

Question
Which number represents a megaspore mother cell in the figure?
Answer
  • 1
  • 3
  • 5
  • 7

Question 42

Question
In the figure, the process labeled "6" involves ________.
Answer
  • mitosis
  • meiosis
  • fertilization
  • binary fission

Question 43

Question
The fact that both charophytes and green plants contain chlorophylls a and b demonstrates which of the following?
Answer
  • A) These derived traits show that green plants evolved from ancient charophytes.
  • B) These shared traits show that green plants evolved from present-day charophytes.
  • C) The common ancestor of these two groups contained chlorophylls a and b.
  • D) These two groups are not closely related.

Question 44

Question
Which of the following statements about the transition from ocean to land by plants is most likely to be accurate?
Answer
  • A) The transition to land occurred within a few generations.
  • B) The transition to land was likely gradual, with plants evolving traits that let them survive ever-drier conditions.
  • C) Rising sea levels favored individuals that were able to survive ever-drier conditions.
  • D) The high light levels of terrestrial systems favored individuals that contained flexible photosynthetic enzyme systems.

Question 45

Question
Which of the following statements about the zygotes of plants is most likely to be accurate?
Answer
  • A) Protection of the zygote from the drying effects of air was important.
  • B) Protection of the zygote from competitors for light was more important in air than in water.
  • C) Zygotes in plants are more independent of parental tissue than are algal zygotes.
  • D) Zygotes in plants are more likely to germinate quickly after release from the parent plant than are zygotes released from algal organisms.

Question 46

Question
If animals had alternation of generations like plants, ________.
Answer
  • A) they would have twice as rapid a population growth rate as compared to their current rates
  • B) the products of mitosis would undergo meiosis
  • C) the products of meiosis would immediately fuse to form a zygote and then undergo mitosis
  • D) the products of meiosis would undergo mitosis and become multicellular

Question 47

Question
Apical meristems ________.
Answer
  • A) occur only in shoots of plants
  • B) occur only in roots of plants
  • C) occur in both roots and shoots of plants
  • D) allow plants to move from one place to another

Question 48

Question
Which of the following statements about stomata is accurate?
Answer
  • A) Stomata are not important in algae because they do not need CO2.
  • B) Stomata, when closed, allow CO2 to diffuse into plants.
  • C) Stomata are important in terrestrial plants because they allow the roots to absorb water and nutrients from the soil.
  • D) Stomata are important in terrestrial plants because they allow CO2 to diffuse into the plant.

Question 49

Question
The presence of vascular tissue allowed plants to ________.
Answer
  • A) absorb nutrients from the soil and form a symbiosis with fungi
  • B) transport nutrients and water from below-ground tissues to above-ground tissues and grow taller
  • C) transport nutrients and water from below-ground tissues and use them to protect developing embryos
  • D) release toxins into the soil that reduced competition with other plants by poisoning nearby plants

Question 50

Question
Bryophytes (non-vascular plants) ________.
Answer
  • A) are more similar to ancestral green algae than are vascular plants
  • B) are more similar to ancestral red algae than are vascular plants
  • C) can be included in the grade monilophyte because they do not have a complex vascular system
  • D) are evolutionarily more advanced than seed plants

Question 51

Question
Grades, as opposed to clades, ________.
Answer
  • A) indicate degrees of evolutionary relatedness
  • B) show relatedness among living organisms
  • C) are almost always monophyletic
  • D) represent groups with similar traits

Question 52

Question
Stomata ________.
Answer
  • A) occur in all land plants and define them as a monophyletic group
  • B) open to allow gas exchange and close to decrease water loss
  • C) occur in all land plants and are the same as pores
  • D) open to increase both water absorption and gas exchange
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