Territoriality, Natural Surveillance, Environment, Milieu
Territoriality, Natural Surveillance, Image, Milieu
What is the most commonly used type of communication system within a building?
LAN server network
Email through internet server connection
In architectural terms, define style.
The style in which a building is designed (i.e. Gothic, Craftsman)
A set of repeating and identifiable elements in a design
A recognizable style by a certain architect, such as Frank Gehry
The style the architect is trying to evoke in the design
When considering steel over other building materials, what should be considered? Select all that apply
seismic design requirements
the owner’s budget
price of steel
placement of mechanical equipment
location of elevator
What should you do if you discover large quantities of organic soils on a site?
Compact the soil and use a stem wall foundation
Use a mat slab foundation to float the building on the soil
Choose a different site as organic soils are impossible to build on
Remove the soil and replace it with an appropriate fill material
In terms of site design, what are conifers best used for?
Adding lush greenery to the landscape
Blocking wind and views
Separating site uses
Which of the following street types would have the lowest level of traffic?
Which of the following are considered the different levels of soil? Select all that apply
Level C - Weathered and fractured rock with little biological activity
Level B - Minerals, lies below the plants roots and supports life
Level D - Solid sandstone
Level A - Topsoil, essential for growth of plants and takes a long time to develop
Per ADA, the wheelchair passage width for doors is minimum clear distance of _____when open at 90°.
Which is a method of heat transfer? Select all that apply
What is a benefit of incorporating sustainable design into a building?
Elimination of property taxes
LEED accreditation and awards for distinguished building status
Healthier indoor environment for building occupants
Lower construction costs
Which items are included on a topographic survey?
Proposed site features
Proposed topography grading
Site datum point
Slab plan dimensions
What is the correct name and description of this housing pattern?
Street Front Pattern: the homes are turned at a right angle to the street
Cluster Development: the homes are turned at a right angle to the street
Street Front Pattern: consisting of houses placed linearly along the street, the street front pattern provides straightforward access for cars and people, as well as uniform orientation
Cluster Development: densely packed units are grouped around shared common public space
This term refers to the assembly of individual units, often of brick or stone and with or with out mortar, into an integrated whole.
Which of the following strategies would NOT reduce energy use within a building?
Install solar panels
Decrease the amount of insulation in the walls
Orient building to sun to control heat gain
Use insulated windows
The three basic types of masonry bearing wall construction are: Select all that apply
What building system would benefit from the use of solar energy within a building?
A typical service meter measures power in what unit?
kWh: Kilowatt hours
Which technique would NOT help reduce sound transmission between spaces in a building?
Add insulation to the walls
Strap mechanical ducts directly to the ceiling
Extend walls from floor to ceiling between stories
Add an air space between construction assembly members
Brick facades should be _______ whenever the joints become compromised and no longer prevent water from entering the wall.
What are ADA showers NOT required to be equipped with:
a fold-down seat
a front curb or step-in that would prevent a wheelchair from rolling out of the shower
a showerhead attached to a flexible supply hose
If the Occupant Load Factor for a 9,000 sq. ft. warehouse is 300 sq. ft. per person how many exits are required?
The main plumbing vent for a building is called the:
Which term grants you the ability to use a building for your proposed use even though the zoning code normally would not allow it?
Conditional Use Permit
What is an Arterial street?
Allows large volumes of traffic to move quickly between, around, or through urban centers
Provide access to low intensity uses in front of them
Serve as transitional channels between local access to a neighborhood and main roads
Also known as highways, they are continuous channels that connect with freeways (at the exits)
A site is located in a dense urban area with heavy traffic, high winds and tall buildings. What information should be gathered to design a building that directly responds to the site conditions?
Microclimate information - refers to the specific local conditions of the site
Any pre-existing site features, such as trees and water
Macroclimate statistics - refers to the general climate of the overall region
Prevailing wind patterns on the site
How is a material sustainably harvested?
A tree is cut down and re-planted
A tree is trimmed instead of completely cut down
A tree is cut down and the soil is left to rest before being replanted
A tree is grown using energy and water efficient technologies
What qualities could you identify of a material based on its thermal mass?
It is a material's ability to absorb heat and cold; higher thermal mass can absorb more temperature
It is a material's ability to insulate a building; higher thermal mass can insulate a building better
It is a material's ability to transfer heat and cold; higher thermal mass can transfer more temperature
It is a material's ability to allow light and air transfer into a building; lower thermal mass allows more light and air to enter a building
Some examples of cathodes are: Select all that apply
Which of the following options would produce a site surface with a relatively low albedo?
Turf and lawn areas
Paving and hardscape
Glass and steel
Reflecting pools and ponds.
Before metal ties came into use for tying the brick layers in a multi-wythe wall to each other, bricks were used in what kind of courses to span a wall’s thickness.
Which of the following would be the typical dB level for an office conversation?
Which of the following specialty shapes are manufactured in CMU blocks? Select all that apply
Keystones (top of arch)
Jamb blocks (door jambs)
Corner blocks (corners)
Bond beams (headers)
Hydrated lime is:
An inorganic compound of calcium hydroxide that comes from burning, hydrating (slaking) and drying of limestone
Another term for wet limestone
A cool drink often supplied on construction sites in order for workers to stay hydrated
What foundation would be best suited for a site that has soils with poor bearing capacity?
Piles or caissons
What are evenly spaced holes or wicks (often placed in vertical mortar joints) that provide a passage for water in the wall to escape.
Arranging the furniture to foster creativity, productivity or work flow would be considered
What is a general size and capacity for an elevator car?
5'X5' with a 1,500lb capacity
5'X7' with a 2,500lb capacity
10'X12' with a 10,000lb capacity
10'X10' with a 5,000lb capacity
What is the maximum slope allowed for an accessible ramp?
What three elements should be considered when laying out the ductwork design for the mechanical system?
Location of light fixtures to avoid placing ductwork above them
Ceiling clearance space
Efficient layout to minimize length of duct runs
Location of door openings
The city has imposed _____________ to restrict no overnight parking of RVs on Main Street.
a non-conforming use
a non-conditional use
a zoning amendment
Hollow brick includes any brick between ______ solid.
What force speeds up the process of convection and of evaporation?
Select all of the typical Housing Patterns from the list.
Street Front Pattern
Which side of the building should windows be placed in a cold climate where ample daylight is required?
What type of foundation would work best on a site with hard bedrock or gravel at the surface?
A typical stem wall foundation
A raised foundation
A Mat Slab foundation
A Pile or Caisson foundation
What question would be asked at the beginning of a Life Cycle Analysis to determine origins of building elements?
What are the by-products of its' manufacturer?
How is the material delivered and installed?
Where did this material come from?
How is the material maintained & operated?
__________ Zoning is a form of single use zoning.
Which is the best way to mitigate disturbance to existing trees a site?
Re-plant disturbed areas to other parts of the site
Minimize night site lighting to not disturb fauna
Minimize disturbance to natural site water supplies
Do not grade past the drip line of the tree
What term describes the study of spatial requirements of humans and the effects of population density on behavior, communication, & social interaction?
What is the typical bearing capacity of compacted sand?
1,000 - 4,000 psf
2,000 - 3,000 psf
3,000 - 12,000 psf
Which type of wood frame extends its studs a full 2-stories from floor level 1 beyond floor level 2 to underside of roof?
If there were registers on opposite walls of a room, ideally each has a throw that reaches ______ of the way to the center of the room.
1 Watt = ____ BTU/hr?
During which phase are design documents reviewed and approved?
Design Development Phase
Construction Documents Phase
1st Plan Check Submittal
What is the typical voltage supply to a wall outlet in the electrical system design?
What kind of security protection would a car alarm be considered?
Term used to describe the concept of heat transfer by mass motion of a fluid such as air or water when heated molecules are caused to move away from the source of heat, carrying energy with it.
What is considered the "comfort zone" in terms of temperature and humidity?
70-85 degrees in the winter and 60-68 degrees in the summer; 80-85% relative humidity
60-68 degrees in the winter and 70-85 degrees in the summer; 50-80% relative humidity
63-71 degrees in winter and 66-75 degrees in the summer; 30-60% relative humidity
50-61 degrees in the winter and 80-85 degrees in the summer; 40-50% relative humidity
Which sites would be best suited for a mat slab or pile foundation? Select all that apply
A site near a body of water
A steep site
A site with a high water table
A flat site
What is the term used by Kevin Lynch to describe how people react to urban areas in his book "The Image of the City"?
The Neighborhood Concept
When specifying a mortar the architect should be careful that they spec a mortar with __________ compressive strength than the unit of masonry that it binds.
three times the
Which process uses a hollow, water-cooled lance that is lowered into a container of molten iron and recycled steel scrap. A stream of pure oxygen is then blown through the lance at high pressure to burn off the excess carbon impurities.
Basic Oxygen Process
What have largely replaced single- and multi-wythe solid walls as building envelopes in order to better resist moisture penetration and limit heat transfer.
Why is it important to determine the level of the water table on a site and what building elements could be affected by the location of the water table?
To know the measurement of a site's ability to absorb water; this will be important in determining how much hardscape should be provided on the site
To know how much water can be added to a local storm sewer after heavy rains; this will affect the location of storm laterals into the building
To know the quantity of water the site can hold before flooding; this will affect waterproofing of the building
To know the level of water below the surface of the ground; this will affect the selection and design of the building foundation
An overflow of electricity is called a_____. When two hot wires are unintentionally connected it is called a _____.
surge, short circuit
A rafter with a notched top plate is called?
What is the advantage to using indigenous materials in a building?
They may be required per local historical building codes
They are more sustainable than new construction
They may have cultural importance to the community
They are local and readily available
A ____________ Easement is ______________?
Conservation; used when it is required for two private owners to use a strip of land between two houses which has a property line running in the center
Joint; used for public good. As in the case where required for a street, highway, railroad right of way or for a telephone or electric power line
Utility; used in row housing, when a common or party wall is shared by two adjacent owners
Condemnation; used for public good. As in the case where required for a street, highway, railroad right of way or for a telephone or electric power line
In___________ terms, what is the purpose of building setbacks?
Zoning Code; to allow access to light and air
Building Code; to keep buildings separated from one another
Building Code; to control the maximum size of a building on a site
Zoning Code; to allow green space between buildings
HVAC capacity is measured in:
air changes per hour
Which cost analysis process considers ways in which alternative design solutions can be implemented that will provide the highest level of performance and safety in combination with the lowest life cycle costs.
How can you mask unwanted noise in a building?
Completely seal the building so that no noise is transmitted between spaces
Play a low pitched tone to drown out the unwanted noise
Play a high pitched tone to drown out the unwanted noise
Provide white noise to blur unwanted sounds together
Which of the following are methods to incorporate passive cooling into a building? Select all that apply
Arrange windows to encourage wind flow through the space and allow ample ventilation
Seal all leaks in the building and provide a very efficient duct system
Utilize the "stack effect" to vent heat up and out of a space and allow cool air to enter below
Incorporate louvers and overhangs on windows to block direct sunlight
Install oversized HVAC equipment
Install energy efficient lighting
Use low VOC paints
Which fire detection system is most commonly used in buildings?
Combination heat and humidity detectors
Combination smoke and flame detectors
What is the difference between Net Density and Gross Density?
Net Density does not include streets while Gross Density includes everything such as streets, open spaces, and parks
Net Density is the best way to describe the density of a site
Net Density includes streets while Gross Density does not
Net Density and Gross Density essentially describe the same thing
Which soil type tends to swell when frozen?
Clay - plastic when wet, stiff when dry
Sand - drains well, good foundation when graded
Gravel - drains well, able to bear loads
Silt - stable when dry or damp, not wet.
John is in the process of selling his home to Anne. Anne needs to close the deal in 7 days. John agrees to close the deal in 7 days, but he won't be able to move for another 60 days. The best strategy for John and Anne to implement would be a _________________.
Cooperative transfer of Ownership
Condominium transfer of rights
Fee simple or Fee absolute
What density is required in order to support a public transit system?
10 persons per acre
30 persons per acre
50 persons per acre
100 persons per acre
In a general sense, what is the main purpose of building codes?
To limit the number of construction projects taking place at the same time
To maintain a cohesive aesthetic among buildings within a city
To protect the health, safety and welfare of the public.
To enforce the future vision for a city or region
Electrical lines are called ‘cables’ when the cross section is ____ AWG or larger.
The square footage of the site is 10,000 s.f. An FAR of 2:1 is allowed for this property. What is the maximum building square footage allowed on this site?
What is AHU an abbreviation for?
Association of Heating Unions
Air Handling Unit
Air Heating Unit
Air Humidity Unification
Which foundation would likely be the most expensive?
Steel cages that are filled with natural stone or rubble and that can be stacked and tied together to bear structural loads or used as retaining walls are called:
Which of the following is NOT a ramp and walkway requirement per ADA guidelines?
Minimum width required for two wheelchairs to pass each other is 50 inches, so public walkways should be minimum 6 feet wide
Ramps shall not be steeper than 1:12 (8.3%) slope.
Flared sides of curb ramps shall be 1:10 maximum slope
Walkways should have a maximum gradient of 5 percent (1:20), and maximum cross gradient of 2 percent (1:50)
Which choice best describes a Planned Unit Development?
Small in scale; uses only one occupancy type; completed as one entire project
Allows for private use; usually a cheaper development option due to high density; generally has a very short construction schedule
Large in scale; utilizes mixed use of occupancies; completed in phases over an extended schedule
All units are identical in floor plan; generally uses a small piece of land; very expensive due to higher density
Which department would perform plan check first in the building permit approval process?
Design Review Board
Building and Safety
A, U, S, or J shaped pipe that is located below or within a plumbing fixture is known as a:
What is a percolation test and when would it be used?
A test used to evaluate the rate at which soil will absorb water on a site; necessary for septic draining or leach fields
A test used to evaluate the rate at which building materials absorb water; necessary in very humid climates
A test used to determine the rate at which water drains from a site; necessary on steeply sloping sites
A test used to calculate the maximum density that is required for the soil on a site; necessary when soil samples are poor
Which of the following is a written agreement that put specific limitations or restrictions on a property?
Deed of Trust
What is a continuous wall from the foundation through the roof that separates the building into different construction types?
This type of pipe fitting is most susceptible to damage from water hammer effect?
copper pipe fittings
A detail that is often used on the front face of a stone coping or a window sill that prevents water from draining down the face of a building is called a:
A building's degree of fire resistance _______.
is influenced by the building's height
determines the building's intended use
classifies the type of construction
is proportional to the building's floor area ratio
Which of the following is an Incidental Accessory Area?
The jury assembly room in a courthouse
A private office research laboratory
A print room in a large office building
A medical gas storage room in a regional hospital
How does a variance affect the zoning code applicable to a particular site?
A variance does not affect the zoning code requirements; it is part of building and safety
A variance overrides the local zoning codes so that a building does not need to comply
A variance makes the site much more expensive to get a permit for construction
A variance is a request to deviate from some of the requirements of zoning (maximum height, minimum setbacks, etc.), because complying with these requirements would create financial hardship or practical construction challenges
What type of development requires the infrastructure to be more spread out, is often less efficient and therefore more expensive?
Heat gain or loss when air moves through cracks or gaps in a building assembly is called:
Which of the following describes the ratio of a Golden Section?
a/b = a+b/b
b/a = a+b/a
b/a = a+a/b
a/b = a+b/a
What is the Occupant Load in a building?
The number of persons who occupy the building during peak hours of operation
The total number of persons that might occupy a building
The number of persons per business in a building
The number of persons per floor of a building.
What are two key types of lateral loads to become familiar with?
Gravity and dynamic loads
Seismic and wind loads
Live and dead loads
The City of Santa Monica, California has implemented a new Zoning Code. What topic(s) does the Zoning Code regulate?
Number of restrooms required in building
Any required setbacks from property lines, rights-of-way, streets and sidewalks
vEnclosed stairways as a means of egress
Alloys are a combination of pure metals to give greater ______ or resistance to corrosion.
Meridians are ______________.
Latitudinal lines North of the equator
Longitudinal lines South of the equator
Longitudinal lines running North – South
Latitudinal lines running East – West
Other than providing electricity, what other use of solar energy is the most efficient in a building
Providing heat for a water heater
Solar panels for electricity is the best use of solar energy
Providing electricity to transfer back to the main grid
Providing heat during the winter
This type of is brick used to line fireplaces or other locations where direct contact with fire was expected.
What are used to distribute air from above and can take on a variety of shapes?
What is the dimension that would result if the same mass of concrete in a block were recast without voids.
Why would thermal mass be used in a building during the winter?
To keep the building cool.
To hold heat within a building.
To reduce the energy consumption of the building
Thermal mass is traditionally only used during the summer
Mass will absorb heat during hot periods (especially if the sun directly radiates on it) and then slowly re-radiates that heat energy back into a space during the evening and night as outdoor temperatures drop. This is the concept of:
Which of the following are typical design criteria for accessible parking? Select all that apply
Minimum number of required stalls is 10; increases in lots larger than 50 standard stalls
Handicapped parking stalls must have a 5 feet access aisle between every two spaces
Stalls to be located near building entrance and provided with an accessible path to the building
Parking stalls to be 9' x 18' minimum.
This process uses a dry powder to electro-statically apply a finish to a metal part. That part is then cured under 200 degrees Fahrenheit, which gives the protected metal a consistent and aesthetically pleasing appearance.
Which of the following describes a future cost?
Cost to the owner to sell the project once it is complete.
Building costs typically including funding the land and consequent reallocation costs, construction and related fees.
Cost related to a building operation, including but not limited to replacement, maintenance, modiﬁcations, or renovation.
"These costs serve the function of the building - including security, materials, and staff. Costs due to construction include temporary space and loss of use
What is a continuous vertical or horizontal shield with a minimum fire-resistant rating of 1 hour?
Stair handrails must be _____ above tread nosing.
Building codes are designed to: Select all that apply
protect health of occupants
protect building owners
protect welfare of occupants
protect safety of occupants
protect health of architects
protect safety of owner
protect personal spaces of occupants
If a two-story, non-sprinklered building has a diagonal length of 200' how far apart should the exit stairs be located?