During the test process of an Internet of Things software, a defect was discovered, but it was not corrected due to the release deadline. After the release, it has not yet caused a failure. A test team decides to fix this defect. Which trigger for maintenance is described in this scenario?
Upgrade of the software
Introduction of completely new or modified thing into the system
Consider the following activities:
(i) Implementing an automated test case
(ii) Performing the review of the architectural design
(iii) Checking grammar and spelling of a user manual
(iv) Planning test activities
(v) Designing a test case
Select all the activities that are part of the testing process.
(i), (iv), and (v)
(ii) and (v)
(i), (iii), and (iv)
(i), (ii), (iii), (iv), (v)
Consider the piece of code:
You executed a predefined set of test cases for this code. Which of the following guarantees that in at least one of these test cases, the while loop was executed at least once?
A set of test cases achieved 50% decision coverage.
A set of test cases achieved 100% statement coverage.
One of these tests executes the code with NumberOfValues = 0.
There are at least two test cases in the test suite.
You test the autopilot system for the airplanes. You want to perform the tests that check the correctness of the communication between two modules of this system: geolocalisation module and engine controller. Which of the following would be the best example of a test basis for designing your tests?
Detailed design of the geolocalisation module
Risk analysis reports
Legal regulations in the field of avionics
Choose the correct sequence of events.
A mistake results in defect, which in turn may result in a failure.
A defect results in a mistake, which in turn may result in a failure.
A failure results in a mistake, which in turn may result in a defect.
A defect results in a failure, which in turn may result in a mistake.
You test a system that computes the pass/fail result for a student who attends a lecture on software testing. The lecture consists of laboratories and exam. For each of these two parts, a student can get from 0 to 50 points (it is always an integer number). The final evaluation is based on the following rule (Please see image)
You want to apply the equivalence partitioning technique to a FinalResult variable. Assume that each test is a pair (L, E). Which set of test cases covers all valid equivalence classes?
You work as a tester in a software house and you concurrently work on two projects. One of them is an internal tool for on-line room reservation, done within an agile life cycle. The other one is a commercial software for managing hospital patients' data, conducted in the waterfall model. In one month, new versions of both systems will be released. You don't have time to perform all the planned tests for both systems. You decide to focus on testing the commercial system. Select the correct answer.
This is a good decision, because the commercial software is much more important for the company than the internal system.
This is a bad decision, because critical defects can occur in both systems, and one of them will not be tested.
This is a bad decision, because testing commercial project will be much more expensive than testing the internal one.
This is a good decision, because the waterfall model requires testing during the end of the project.
Figure 6.1 presents the set of test cases you want to execute. An arrow from a test case A to B indicates logical dependencies between these test cases: the execution of B is possible only after the execution of A. The number in parentheses represent the priorities of test cases (1= the highest, 5= the lowest). In your strategy, you want to prioritise the execution sequence regarding the test priority.
Which test case should be executed as the fifth one?
Consider the collapsed decision table presented in Table 6.1 that describes the business rules for admitting a free bus ticket.
Assume that a test consists of three Boolean values corresponding to three conditions. Which of the following tests demonstrates that the business ruled described in the table are contradictory?
You test a system that produced very big output files. Their structure must follow some set of predefined rules. The expected result of a test case is the file that follows these rules. You want to execute a set of test cases. Suppose you have a tool that takes two files as an input and returns TRUE if they are identical and FALSE otherwise. What would be the type of this tool in this case?
A test oracle
A test data generator
A monitoring tool
Match the actions with the corresponding work product review activities.
Action 1 - Distribution of the work product
Action 2 - Noting questions and recommendations about the work product
Action 3 - Allocating roles
Activity a - Individual review
Activity b - Planning
Activity c - Initiating the review
1b, 2a, 3c
1c, 2a, 3b
1a, 2b, 3c
1b, 2c, 3a
A tester, together with a developer, architect, and test manager, participates in the inspection of an architectural design of a component. The design was done by the architect. During the inspection, the test manager finds an error int he design. After the inspection, the tester creates the new, corrected version of the design. Using the new design, the developer implements the component.
Who performed the debugging?
If there are n binary decisions in the code, and there are no other decisions apart from these ones, what is the total number of coverage elements for the decision coverage?
The client of a system under test is interested primarily in a high availability of this system. One of his requirements is as follows: " The system may be unavailable no more often than 1 hour per week." You prepare a test report designed specifically for the client, regarding the above-mentioned requirement. The report covers the data from the period of last week. Which information should contain this report?
Number of test cases executed, number of test cases that failed, number of test cases that passed
Number of defects found, number of defects fixed
Total repairing time
Mean time between failures, number of failures
You work as a tester in a project for a dedicated client. You have a set of automated test cases, which are traced back to the functional requirements and to the software components. Each functional requirement is traced back to one or more risk items. Suppose that in a certain moment, risk level of one of the risk items has changed. Using the impact analysis, what can we infer from this fact?
(i) Which requirements may be affected by this change?
(ii) Which test cases may be affected by this change?
(iii) Which software components may be affected by this change?
We can infer about (i); we cannot infer about (ii) and (iii)
We can infer about (i), (ii), and (iii)
We can infer about (i) and (ii); we cannot infer about (iii)
We can infer about (iii); we cannot infer about (i) and (ii)
Which of the below information affects the testing effort and at the same time is the outcome of the testing itself?
The size of the product
The number of testers
The client requirements
The number of defects found
A moderator was asked to organise a code review (walkthrough) of a component X for a group of developers. He organised an inspection and invited an author of X and a team of testers. Based on this scenario, which type(s) of the success factors for reviews are missing?
Neither organisational nor people-related success factors are missing
Only a certain people-related success factor is missing
Only a certain organisational success factor is missing
Both organisational and people-related success factors are missing
You test the program that takes a sequence of numbers as the input and returns these numbers sorted. Before you start your testing, you get the idea (without referring to any documentation) to check what happens, if you enter the empty set of numbers as the input. This is an example of which technique?
Which of the following gives the best description of a decision table testing?
A technique for representing complex business rules, by identifying conditions and the resulting actions.
A technique for representing a behaviour of a test item depending on current conditions or previous history
A technique for representing a sequence of decisions undertaken by a subject in collaboration with one or more actors.
A technique for deriving test cases that exercise the decisions in the code and for testing the code that is executed based on the decision outcomes.
Which sentence explains correctly the importance of performing regression test regarding the SDLC model chosen?
Regression testing is important in incremental models, because after adding an increment, we need to check if it did not cause problems in other, already developed , parts of the system.
Regression testing is important during the system testing, because regression testing is usually performed on a system that allows end-to-end testing, no matter which SDLC model is chosen.
Regression testing is important in a waterfall model, because in the sequential models, testing is performed in the late phases, when the system is already implemented, so the testing effort will be usually bigger than in case of incremental models.
Regression testing is important in the iterative SDLC models, because these models put a strong emphasis on the constant interaction between end users, testers, and developers.
Software development models must be adapted to:
Context of the project
A system calculates the bonus for airplane pilots. The bonus is based on the total number of flying hours, which is the sum of the number of hours on a flight simulator and the number of hours on regular flights. The business rules R1 - R5 for admitting the bonus are presented in the following decision table.
Which of the following sets of test inputs is a minimal set that achieves the equivalence partitioning coverage for the output value? Assume each test input is a pair (s,f), where s denotes the simulator hours and f-flight hours.
Recently, your organisation outsourced the test team for conducting the performance testing. You talk with a developer, who told you that it was a very good idea, because now they - developers - do not need to care so much about the performance issues, as they will be found by the test team. This is an example of:
Benefit of test independence, as developers may focus on other activities.
Benefit of test independence, as the outsourced testing team may see other and different defects and is unbiased.
Drawback of test independence, as the outsourced team is isolated from the developers.
Drawback of test independence, as some of the team members may lose a sense of responsibility for quality.
Which of the following can be the root cause of the fact that a developer implemented an ineffective algorithm?
Poor performance of the system.
Acceptance testing done by testers in the client's location, not by client.
Developer's lack of education in the area of algorithms and complexity.
Memory leaks that occurred after a long time of the software operation.
Which of the following is an example of the analytical test strategy?
Designing software models and then deriving test cases from these models.
Prioritising the test execution with respect to the related risk levels.
Performing fault attacks with the use of predesigned checklist containing the types of defects that had occurred in the past in other projects.
Select the right relation between quality assurance, quality control, and testing.
Testing is a synonym of quality assurance, which is a part of quality control.
Testing is a form of quality control, which is a part of quality assurance.
Quality control is a form of quality assurance, which is a synonym for testing.
Quality control is a synonym of quality assurance, which is part of testing.
Your company has recently published an official document describing how to perform static analysis of a source code. Can this document be a subject to static analysis?
Yes, because every software work product can be examined using static techniques.
No, because we would have to apply the rules described in the document to themselves.
No, because the document describes how to perform a static analysis of a source code, but the document itself is not a source code.
No, because static analysis can be performed only for specifications and source code.
Which of the following is the benefit of using the checklist-based testing?
It allows us to appreciate the nonfunctional testing, which is often underestimated.
It allows us to test effectively in absence of formal requirements.
It allows us to take advantage of the tester's expert knowledge.
It allows us to test in a more consistent way.
Risk level is characterised by:
Likelihood and priority
Probability and impact
Severity and priority
Product risks and project risks
Table 6.2 shows all the valid transitions of some state machines with three states: Initial, LoginPage, and WelcomePage.
Assuming there are only four possible events in the system: GoToLogin, LoginOK, LoginNotOk, LogOut, how many invalid transitions are in this state machine?
Which of the following are the examples of the metrics-based approach and which are the examples of the expert based approach?
(i) Planning poker
(ii) Wideband Delphi
(iii) Burndown chart
(iv) Software reliability model
(i) and (ii) are metric based; (iii) and (iv) are expert based.
(i), (iii), and (iv) are metric based; (iv) is expert based.
(iii) and (iv) are metric based; (i) and (ii) are expert based.
(ii) is metric based; (i), (iii), and (iv) are expert based.
Testers may test the software more efficient than developers, because:
Testers may have programming skills.
Testers usually do not have programming skills.
Developers' responsibility is to write code, not to test it.
Developers have the emotional attitude to their code.
You test the online reservation system for a hotel chain. Consider the artifact (ID003).
This artifact is an example of:
You perform an ad-hoc review of the model of a process that realises the following business requirement.: "User can send any file of size at most 1 GB through a web form. If the file size exceed this bound, the system should reject the file, clear the form, and return to the initial state. Otherwise, the system accepts the file."
The model under review is presented in Fig. 6.2.
What type of defect in the model can you uncover during the review?
Wrong design, because there is a potentially infinite loop.
Inconsistency with the requirement regarding the business rule.
Ambiguity, because the model does not say what file types are accepted.
There are no defects - the model conforms to the business requirement.
A shopping discount system takes as an input the total price T (a positive integer with precision of 1 cent), rounds it to the nearest integer value (in dollars), and basing on this value calculates a discount using the rules presented in Table 6.3.
You want to test if the system correctly calculates the discount for a given total price T. Which of the following is a set of boundary values for one of the equivalence classes of a variable T? Assume that you follow 2-point boundary value analysis.
Which of the following is a clear advantage of static testing over dynamic testing?
Static techniques can locate defects other than dynamic techniques.
Static techniques are cheaper than dynamic techniques.
Static techniques can detect defects earlier than dynamic techniques.
Static techniques can detect failures, while dynamic techniques are only able to find defects.
You write a defect report with an intention to provide developers a sufficient information to reproduce defect as quick as possible. The current form of our report looks as follows: (Please see image)
Which additional information in the defect report will be the most beneficial in this scenario?