Histotechnology

Victoria Station
Quiz by , created 12 months ago

Histotechnology Quiz on Histotechnology, created by Victoria Station on 12/04/2018.

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Victoria Station
Created by Victoria Station 12 months ago
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Question 1

Question
What would not be seen in autolytic tissue?
Answer
  • Nuclear detail lost
  • Stainability lost
  • Stain precipitation
  • Cells coming away from basement membrane

Question 2

Question
What would be a "normal" specimen received in the grossing room?
Answer
  • Tumor
  • Placenta
  • Surgical
  • Biopsy

Question 3

Question
Cassettes:
Answer
  • Are 3 cm deep
  • Must be labeled
  • Colours indicate day of week the tissue was processed
  • Has holes to allow the tissue to flow in an out

Question 4

Question
Fixation:
Answer
  • Functions by creating hydrogen bridges to prevent degredation
  • Typically shrinks, swells, and distorts tissue
  • Keeps bacteria and fungi viable
  • Allows the tissue to be stainable

Question 5

Question
Which is not a factor affecting fixation?
Answer
  • Time
  • Density of tissue
  • Temperature
  • Type of container

Question 6

Question
Which is not a coagulant fixative?
Answer
  • Zinc
  • Picric Acid
  • Acetic Acid
  • Alcohol

Question 7

Question
Which non-coagulant fixative is also non-additive
Answer
  • Osmium Tetroxide
  • Acetic Acid
  • Formalin
  • Gluteraldehyde

Question 8

Question
How much concentrated formalin is needed to make 5.5L of 10% formalin?
Answer
  • 55 ml
  • 55 L
  • 5500 ml
  • 550 ml

Question 9

Question
To make 10% formalin, how many ml should be added to 230 ml of 100% formalin?
Answer
  • 2300 ml
  • 0.23 L
  • 2070 ml
  • 2600 ml

Question 10

Question
Which is true about formaldehyde?
Answer
  • It is a coagulant fixative
  • It is composed of liquid formaldehyde in water
  • Add methanol to stop the formation of paraformaldehyde
  • Penetrates tissue slowly but fixes quickly

Question 11

Question
The best fixative for DNA/RNA is?
Answer
  • Carnoy
  • Picric Acid
  • Formalin
  • Gluteraldehyde

Question 12

Question
Which is false about gluteraldehyde?
Answer
  • Is a non-coagulant, additive fixative
  • Can be used to disinfect the cryostat
  • Can cause false positive reactions in period acid schiff
  • Creates methylene bridges in tissue to preserve it

Question 13

Question
Mercuric Chloride
Answer
  • Is a component in B5 fixative
  • Is a common fixative used in the histology lab
  • Mercuric pigment can be removed using alcoholic picric acid
  • Is a great fixative when tissue needs to be X-rayed

Question 14

Question
What is false about osmium tetroxide?
Answer
  • Fixes lipids
  • Used mostly for electron microscopy
  • Commonly a secondary fixative
  • Is a non-additive fixative

Question 15

Question
Bouin's fixative:
Answer
  • Is composed of picric acid, formaldehyde and mercuric chloride
  • Is the best preservative for glycogen
  • Does not stain tissue
  • Is commonly used as a secondary fixative

Question 16

Question
Which is known to be a good general fixative?
Answer
  • Gluteraldehyde
  • PAF / Zamboni
  • Picric Acid
  • Mercuric Chloride

Question 17

Question
Select the correct statement regarding non-aqueous fixatives?
Answer
  • Acetone should not be used for IHC since it destroys enzymes
  • Acetone is a good fixative since it does not shrink or harden tissue
  • Ethanol should not be used to fix frozen sections since it inhibits freezing
  • Ethanol should not be used to preserve glycogen as it is known to dissolve it

Question 18

Question
Which fixative would be a good choice when RBCs need to be preseved
Answer
  • Carnoy's
  • Picric Acid
  • Bouin's
  • Acetic Acid

Question 19

Question
Oh no! Your tissue is autolytic! What should be done to prevent this?
Answer
  • Tissue should be placed in fixative 10X greater than the tissue itself
  • Tissue should have been placed in fixative right after removal from the body
  • Tissue in fixative should be placed at 4 degrees Celcius
  • Tissue should have been frozen before fixation

Question 20

Question
What would be proper fixation procedure for a large tissue?
Answer
  • Large tissue should not be fixed
  • Large tissue must be cut into smaller pieces
  • Holes must be poked in the specimen to allow fixative to penetrate
  • Fixative must be injected into the specimen

Question 21

Question
Which is true regarding the VIP Tissue Processor?
Answer
  • Uses vacuum technology to infiltrate tissues
  • Hematoxylin is added to tint the tissue pink for easier embedding orientation
  • This processor is safer since it does not use heat
  • This is an open system

Question 22

Question
Which is TRUE about dehydration?
Answer
  • The dehydration process begins with the highest alcohol concentration then descends
  • Ethyl alcohol is the best for dehydration
  • Butanol is a good substitution because it is quick
  • Alcohol dehydrates tissue by removing xylene

Question 23

Question
How would you be able to tell if a tissue was improperly dehydrated?
Answer
  • Tissue would smell like xylene
  • Tissue would be soft
  • Impossible to tell until staining
  • Tissue would be dessicated

Question 24

Question
What is the proper way to fix improper dehydration?
Answer
  • First xylene, then several changes of alcohol, then xylene, then wax
  • Impossible to fix, request new specimen
  • First several changes of alcohol, then xylene, then wax
  • Several changes of wax

Question 25

Question
After processing; tissue is soft, cloudy, and smells like alcohol. Why?
Answer
  • Improper fixation
  • Improper dehydration
  • Improper clearing
  • Improper infiltration

Question 26

Question
Which is not a clearing agent?
Answer
  • Xylene
  • Toluene
  • Benzene
  • Chloridine

Question 27

Question
Which is true considered a universal solvent?
Answer
  • An example is Limonene
  • A solution that dehydrates and clears
  • An example is Xylene
  • A solution that dehydrates and infiltrates

Question 28

Question
How would you fix improper infiltration?
Answer
  • Increase the temperature of the wax
  • Remove wax with xylene, dehydrate with alcohol, then clear with xylene, then several changes of wax
  • Re-fix the tissue
  • Several changes of wax

Question 29

Question
Which statement is TRUE?
Answer
  • Soft wax allows for easy ribboning
  • Soft wax provides the most support
  • Hard wax melts at 45 degrees Celsius
  • Hard wax should not be used if thinner sections are required

Question 30

Question
What is true about paraffin wax?
Answer
  • Wax should be kept at least 10 degrees over the melting point
  • Typical melting point is 35-48 degrees
  • Overexposure to wax will cause tissue hardening and shrinking
  • Water-bath should be kept 2 degrees above the melting point

Question 31

Question
What is an advantage to using a microwave for processing?
Answer
  • Clearing step can be skipped
  • Infiltration step can be skipped
  • Dehydration step can be skipped
  • Microwaves would never be used for processing

Question 32

Question
A technologist is viewing several embedded tissues. Which one would need to be re-embedded?
Answer
  • Several small biopsies are placed together
  • Red dot is facing towards you when cutting
  • Two pieces of small bowel are orientated so that the lumens are facing eachother
  • Transverse cut of tubular tissue

Question 33

Question
Which of these is proper troubleshooting?
Answer
  • Incorrect orientation of tissue when embedding - discard the tissue and request new specimen
  • Poor processing of tissues - check solutions and machine
  • Tissue is over-dehydrated - increase time in alcohol
  • NBF precipitate is found in the tubing of the processor - perform a picric acid flush

Question 34

Question
Troubleshoot this cutting situation: what is the most likely cause of crooked ribbons?
Answer
  • Block not chilled enough
  • Cutting too slowly
  • Dull blade
  • Block and knife not parallel to eachother

Question 35

Question
Select the correct statement about decalcification
Answer
  • Tissue must be > 3 mm in order to be decalcified properly
  • Calcium is soluble at pH 4.5
  • Acid methods are usually slow
  • Decalcification increases stainability of bone tissue

Question 36

Question
What is the most accurate way to determine the end point of decalcification?
Answer
  • Mechanical methods such as poking
  • Chemical methods such as ammonium hydroxide and ammonium oxalate which check for the precipitation of calcium oxalate
  • Cutting the bone tissue
  • Radiography

Question 37

Question
When looking at a H&E stained bone under the microscope, the technologist notices that there is many dark blue/purple staining areas. What could this mean?
Answer
  • Bone was stained too long in hematoxylin
  • Bone was underdecalcified
  • Bone was improperly fixed
  • Bone was not stained with the correct stain

Question 38

Question
What is the incorrect procedure when using the cryostat?
Answer
  • Disinfect daily with sodium hypochlorite
  • Use cryostat when rapid diagnosis is required or when fat or enzymes need to be demonstrated.
  • If a tissue with known TB requires cutting, disinfect afterwards with formaldehyde vapor
  • If tissue is sticking the antiroll plate may be too warm

Question 39

Question
Which is the correct use for each microscope?
Answer
  • Fluorescent microscope for Acid Fast Bacilli
  • Polarizing microscope for Oil Red O
  • Compound light microscope for Acridine Orange
  • Electron microscope for H&E

Question 40

Question
Select the correct statement about microtomes:
Answer
  • "Roughing in" is usually done at 20 micrometers
  • The clearance angle is usually set at 10 degrees
  • Speed of cutting has no effect on ribbon quality
  • In a rotary microtome, the knife moves side to side

Question 41

Question
Select the correct statement about automatic stainers:
Answer
  • With linear stainers, time in solution can be varied by adding more containers
  • With robotic stainers, the programs cannot be changed
  • Robotic stainers are good for progressive staining
  • Linear stainers are good for regressing staining

Question 42

Question
What is proper water bath procedure?
Answer
  • Water bath should be kept at 5 - 10 degrees above the melting point of wax
  • Tap water should always be used to fill water baths
  • Parched earth artifact can result if the water bath is too cold
  • Water bath should be cleaned after each ribbon

Question 43

Question
A technologist is cutting many tissues for different areas of the lab. Which of the following is an incorrect procedure?
Answer
  • Slides for IHC were placed on a hotplate for drying.
  • Slides with biospy were cut using special techniques with 6 tissues per slide
  • Slides for neurology were placed in a 37 degree oven for drying
  • Slides for routine H&E were placed in a 60 degree oven for drying

Question 44

Question
A student is concerned about contracting TB from patient samples. What process would be of the least concern to the student?
Answer
  • Embedding
  • Grossing
  • Autopsy
  • Frozen sectioning

Question 45

Question
Which is considered to be a correct safe procedure?
Answer
  • Placing used blades in the garbage
  • Fixing tissue that is known to be TB positive with formalin
  • Storing glacial acetic acid on the counter top
  • Fixing CJD positive tissue with formalin

Question 46

Question
Which is not an element of a dye molecule?
Answer
  • metachrome
  • benzene ring
  • auxochrome
  • chromaphore

Question 47

Question
What is a correct statement about staining:
Answer
  • A method of nuclear staining is acidic dye
  • A method of nuclear staining is dye + metal mordant
  • Cytoplasmic staining occurs from the interaction of dye with neutral molecules
  • Lipids are stained because the dye has a greater affinity to the solution than the fat

Question 48

Question
Which is considered a basic auxochrome?
Answer
  • -NH2
  • -COOH
  • -OH
  • -SO4

Question 49

Question
Which statement is correct?
Answer
  • Basic dyes will have a negative auxochrome
  • Basic dyes will produce chloride salt
  • Acid dyes are cationic
  • Acid dyes produce magnesium salt

Question 50

Question
Which is a true statement about dyes?
Answer
  • Modifiers will affect staining time
  • Sulphonics makes acidic dyes basic
  • Dye binding can be affected by pH
  • Orthochromic dye will stain a different colour than the dye colour

Question 51

Question
Which is not a metachromatic component?
Answer
  • AFB
  • Mucin
  • Mast Cell
  • Amyloid

Question 52

Question
Why are thymol crystals added to dye? ;)
Answer
  • Prevent mold growth
  • Enhance staining
  • Makes the dye more acidic
  • Makes the dye fluorescent

Question 53

Question
Which is not a natural dye?
Answer
  • Hematoxylin
  • Orcein
  • Acridine Orange
  • Saffron

Question 54

Question
Which pairing for decolorization is incorrect?
Answer
  • Weak acid differentiating basic dyes ex. PTA/PMA for Biebrich Scarlet
  • Weak base differentiating acid dyes ex. PTA/PMA for Biebrich Scarlet
  • Excess mordant differentiating ex. iron alum for Verhoeff
  • Alcoholic differentiation ex. alcohol for eosin

Question 55

Question
A technologist needs to prepare a hematoxylin for use in Masson's Trichrome. Which would be the correct procedure?
Answer
  • Oxidize the hematoxylin with sodium iodate
  • Prepare hematoxylin using aluminum since it can withstand strong acids in the stain
  • After preparing the hematoxylin, pour directly into the coplin jar for staining
  • Gill's hematoxylin should be prepared for this stain

Question 56

Question
A technologist has prepared several different hematoxylins for use. Which one of them is paired correctly for use?
Answer
  • Gill's hematoxylin for use in Alcian Blue
  • Mayer's hematoxylin for Oil Red O
  • Harris hematoxylin for Masson's Trichrome
  • Weigert's hematoxylin for routine H&E

Question 57

Question
What is true about Hematoxylin and Eosin?
Answer
  • Hematoxylin stains indirectly
  • Is never a regressive stain
  • Cannot be used to stain bone tissue
  • The best substitute for eosin would be phenol red

Question 58

Question
A technologist is reviewing a manual H&E control slide when they notice that the nuclei have not stained. Which of the following options is likely NOT be a reason for this problem.
Answer
  • Tissue was left in acid alcohol for 20 minutes during coffee break
  • Aluminum / iron was not present in the hematoxylin
  • The hematoxylin was not filtered properly
  • The hematoxylin was stored in a clear glass jar

Question 59

Question
A technologist reviewing an H&E control has noticed that the cytoplasm is staining very dark. Which is not a likely cause?
Answer
  • Tissue was cut at 3 micrometers
  • Eosin is too concentrated
  • Eosin was not left in alcohol long enough
  • Tissue was left in eosin for too long

Question 60

Question
A technologist is preparing to perform Masson's trichrome on a kidney slide. Which of the following procedures is INCORRECT?
Answer
  • Places slide in Bouin's for 1 hour at 56 degrees.
  • Counterstain in Light Green
  • Places slides in Biebrich Scarlet Acid Fuchsin before PTA/PMA
  • Uses Mayer's Hematoxylin to stain nuclei

Question 61

Question
A technologist is reviewing the Masson's Trichrome control. Which of the following stained components is cause for concern?
Answer
  • Collagen has stained blue
  • Cytoplasm has stained red
  • RBCs have stained red
  • Nucleic acids have stained red

Question 62

Question
A technologist is preparing to perform Gordon and Sweets on a liver tissue. Which of the following is the CORRECT procedure?
Answer
  • Ensure than silver solution is neutralized with HCl before disposal
  • Place the slides in a thin walled coplin jar to ensure good heating in the microwave
  • Bleach tissue in Oxalic Acid after Potassium Permanganate
  • Counterstain in Light Green

Question 63

Question
Which staining method is NOT correctly paired with the type of metallic impregnation?
Answer
  • Gomori Burnter - argentaffin
  • Grocott - argyrophilic
  • von Kossa - substitution
  • Gordon and Sweets - argyrophilic

Question 64

Question
A technologist is reviewing the control for Verhoeff's van Gieson. Which of the following errors is paired with the correct solution?
Answer
  • Elastic fibers cannot easily be seen on the brain control slide so it was placed in Verhoffs stain for a longer period of time
  • Nuclei are not staining so a new solution of Verhoffs made and used
  • The stain looks very muddy so it was placed back into gold chloride for a longer time
  • Elastic fibers are too pale so the slide was placed back into van Gieson stain for longer

Question 65

Question
Which is the correct statement about elastic stains?
Answer
  • Orcein is specific for elastic fibres
  • Orcein will stain elastic fibres brown
  • Aldehyde fuchsin will stain elastic fibres green
  • Aldehyde fuchsin is a regressive method

Question 66

Question
A technologist is preparing to perform Toludine Blue. What should the technologist NOT do?
Answer
  • Take the slides down to water before staining
  • Place the slides in Toludine Blue to stain for mast cells
  • Place the slides in Light Green as a counterstain
  • Differentiate with alcohol then clear and mount

Question 67

Question
A technologist is confused why their Alcian Blue control slide did not demonstrate mucins. Which would NOT be a cause for this to happen?
Answer
  • Stomach tissue was used as the control
  • The tissue was placed in 3% acetic acid before Alcian Blue dye
  • The tissue was placed in Acetic Acid following Alcian Blue for 10 minutes
  • The pH of Alcian Blue was 6.5

Question 68

Question
Oh no! Our Periodic Acid Schiff's stain didn't work (again).Which of the following would NOT be a possible cause?
Answer
  • Schiff's reagent was tested before use using formalin and the reaction became a deep blue colour
  • Grocott's method was performed earlier so the periodic acid solution was saved and used agian
  • Metabisulfite rinse was prepared using 100% HCl straight from the bottle
  • Tissues were washed for 10 minutes in water after Schiff's

Question 69

Question
Which statement is true regarding Periodic Acid Schiffs?
Answer
  • Schiff's reagent is composed of Acid Fuchsin and Sulpheric Acid
  • Periodic acid is the secondary oxidizer
  • Sodium Metabisulfite rise is what brings the pink colour to the tissue
  • Fungi will stain pink

Question 70

Question
Which is FALSE about Mayer's Mucicarmine?
Answer
  • Metanil Yellow is the primary stain
  • Mucicarmine stains acid mucins
  • Gill's hematoxylin should not be used as the nuclear stain
  • Cryptococcus can also be demonstrated with this method

Question 71

Question
A technologist is preparing to stain for amyloid. Which procedure is correct?
Answer
  • The technologist double checked to ensure sections were cut at 4um
  • The doctor would like to differentiate between primary and secondary amyloidosis so the slide was pretreated with potassium permangonate
  • Slides were placed in neutral red to stain for amyloid
  • The technologist did not know how to use the polarizing microscope so birefringence was not checked on the control

Question 72

Question
The pathologist has requested an Oil Red O stain for a frozen tissue. Which of the following procedures is INCORRECT?
Answer
  • The tissue was previously fixed in formalin
  • A frozen section was cut for staining
  • Tissue was taken down to water before staining
  • The tissue was placed in hematoxylin after Oil Red O

Question 73

Question
Which is FALSE about Luxol Fast Blue stain?
Answer
  • Luxol Fast Blue dye is differentiated with an acid
  • The control tissue is cerebellum
  • Eosin is the counterstain
  • Luxol Fast Blue stains myelin

Question 74

Question
A technologist notices an endogenous pigment on their slides. What is it?
Answer
  • mercury
  • tattoo
  • carbon
  • melanin

Question 75

Question
A technologist is performing Von Kossa. Which procedure is INCORRECT?
Answer
  • Tissue is placed in silver nitrate and then microwaved for the appropriate time
  • Placenta is used as the calcium control
  • The tissues are placed in nuclear fast red or neutral red
  • The technologist decides the control passed since the calcium stained brown

Question 76

Question
A technologist is performing Perl's Prussian Blue on a control and a patient tissue. The technologist checks the PATIENT'S slide to find that no iron has been stained! What is the most likely cause for this result?
Answer
  • Slide was placed in eosin
  • Patient tissue does not contain iron
  • Slide was taken down to distilled water
  • Slide was placed in HCl + Potassium Ferrocyanide

Question 77

Question
Which is a true statement regarding Gomori Burtner stain?
Answer
  • This stain is used to demonstrate argentaffin granules
  • Gold chloride is a fixing agent
  • Hematoxylin is the counterstain
  • Melanin cannot oxidize silver therefore a reducer such as Sodium Thiosulfate is required

Question 78

Question
A technologist needs to stain for Blastomyces, which stain should they select?
Answer
  • Ziehl Neelson
  • Gram
  • Geimsa
  • Grocott

Question 79

Question
A sample for AFB is arriving in the lab for staining. What should be done?
Answer
  • After fixation, Gram stain the tissue to detect the bacteria
  • Wear N-95 for frozen section
  • Place the specimen in Carnoy's for fixation then stain with Ziehl Neelson
  • After fixation, take down slides to tap water before staining

Question 80

Question
Why do AFB stain red with Ziehl Neelson?
Answer
  • Not enough Acid Alcohol was used to decolourize the AFB
  • Methylene blue stain was missed
  • Nature of their cell wall
  • Because they are Gram negative

Question 81

Question
Which component of Gram stain is correctly matched with its purpose?
Answer
  • Crystal violet - stains Gram negative bacteria
  • Acetone / Alcohol - decololourizes Gram positive bacteria
  • Basic Fuchsin - stains acid fast bacteria pink
  • Picric Acid - stains bacteria yellow

Question 82

Question
A technologist is having trouble with Grocott stain. Which of the following problems is correctly solved?
Answer
  • Fungi are stained black - the slide is placed back into gold chloride for more toning until fungi are brown
  • Fungi, nuclei, and other tissues are staining black - the slide is good
  • No fungi have been stained - the wrong concentration of periodic acid was used
  • Fungi are brown - the slide is good

Question 83

Question
Which of these uncommon stains is correctly paired?
Answer
  • MSB stain for bile
  • Warthin-Starry for H. pylori
  • Steiner for spirochetes
  • Hall for fibrin

Question 84

Question
Which of the following is NOT a correct procedure in IHC?
Answer
  • Deparaffinize and hydrate to water
  • apply antibody
  • stain nuclei with hematoxylin
  • counterstain with hematoxylin

Question 85

Question
Which is true about antigen sites in tissues for IHC?
Answer
  • Tissue must be washed with water to remove crosslinking from formalin
  • Proteolytic enzymes will destroy the antigen sites
  • Heat methods help cleave the bonds
  • Enzymatic methods will unfold the bonds

Question 86

Question
Which of these solutions is NOT properly disposed of?
Answer
  • Picric acid in a container
  • Alcohol in a container
  • Sodium Thiosulfate down the sink
  • Silver Nitrate down the sink

Question 87

Question
Which pairing of control with stain will not work?
Answer
  • Kidney for Masson's Trichrome
  • Placenta for von Kossa
  • Cerebrum for Luxol Fast Blue
  • Stomach for Alcian Blue

Question 88

Question
Why should gloves be worn when cutting tissues on the microtome?
Answer
  • To prevent the blade from getting scratched
  • To prevent your hands from getting infected
  • To prevent skin cells from getting on the microscope slides
  • To prevent yourself from getting cut

Question 89

Question
What would not be a likely reason for seeing pale staining elastic fibres for Verhoeff van Gieson?
Answer
  • Left in Sodium Thiosulfate for too long
  • Left in Ferric Chloride too long
  • Left in Van Gieson stain too long
  • Left in Verhoeff stain too long

Question 90

Question
Which would not be a reason for seeing pale cytoplasmic staining on H&E stained tissue?
Answer
  • pH of eosin is 8.0
  • Sections were cut at 8 micrometers
  • Tissue left in alcohol for too long
  • Tissues were rinsed in water after blueing