Key word flashcards

I M Wilson
Flashcards by , created about 4 years ago

Flashcard set for core and additional sciences.

Eye 757
Pin 49
Balloon left 0
I M Wilson
Created by I M Wilson about 4 years ago
Biology - Unit 2
George Moores
P2 Radioactivity and Stars
Biology B2.3
Jade Allatt
USA and Vietnam (1964-1975) - Part 1
Lewis Appleton-Jones
Legislative Branch
Mr. Vakhovsky
C1, C2, C3 keywords
Jessica Phillips
B2, C2, P2
George Moores
B3, C3, P3
George Moores
Chemistry GCSE
C1 Metals and their uses
Question Answer
Hypothesis A statement that will be tested by experiment.
Independent Variable The condition that you change to test the hypothesis.
Dependent variable The observed or measured condition as a result of making a change to the IV
Control Variables All of the conditions which must remain the same throughout the experiment to ensure a fair and reliable test.
Reproducibility Can the results be reproduced by different people using the same conditions?
Resolution The smallest possible measurement taken on an instrument.
Conclusion Statement of the results, and how it relates to the hypothesis.
Economic issues Money, jobs, wealth
Social issues Effects on people's everyday lives or wellbeing
Environmental issues Pollution to land, air, water, noise. Impact on living things in the area.
Ethical issues Is it right or wrong, morally, religious beliefs, guilt, well-being, long-term affects.
Repeatability If you do the experiment again will you get the same results?
Systematic error An error that occurs every single time.
Zero error When an instrument should be reading zero but isn't
Human error Mistakes made by people, like judging a colour change, or reading a thermometer wrong.
Hazard A thing that could potentially cause harm
Risk An action or procedure that could potentially cause harm.
Accurate Results are close to the true answer (theoretical answer)
Precise Results are close to each other
Range The biggest value to the smallest value of your IV or DV.
Suitable range Big enough to show a trend or pattern, without being so big it becomes dangerous.
Interval A period of change, e,g, 5ml-10ml has an interval of 5ml, 3sec-10sec has an interval of 7sec.
Scatter graph Used to present continuous data usually with a line/curve or best fit.
Bar/Column graph Used to represent categorical data e.g. colours, frequency.
Table What you record your raw data in
Evaluation Discussing the successes or failures of an experiment.
Energy One of 9 types of energy, cannot be created or destroyed, all living things need it, you cannot touch it (intangible).
Carbohydrates Food molecules containing carbon hydrogen and oxygen chains. Found in starchy foods like potatoes and bread.
Proteins Food molecule used for building and repairing cells. Found in meats and some nuts.
Fats Food molecule containing energy, helps to insulate the body and protect organs. Found in foods like dairy, meat, oily fish.
Fibre Food molecule used to keep the digestive system running smoothly. Found in fruits, vegetables and grains.
Vitamins Essential food molecules that help cells and processes to function properly.
Minerals Essential chemical elements that help to make sure your cells and processes are functioning properly.
Metabolism/Metabolic rate Your ability to digest food. High MR= quicker digestion. Genetic and exercise/diet related.
Muscle Muscle cells require large amounts of energy, they group together to form muscle tissue, essential for movement.
Malnutrition Having a diet that is too high or too low in specific areas.
Balanced diet A diet that contains a little bit of everything in the right proportions.
Diet The foods that you eat
Exercise Action that increases heart rate and fitness.
Obesity A weight problem where the sufferer is over a healthy weight for their height.
Arthritis Joint swelling, can be caused by age, genetics, or weight.
Diabetes A condition where the body does not produce the right amount of insulin.
Heart diesease A range of conditions affecting the health of the heart often caused by poor diet and lifestyle.
Hypertension High blood pressure. Can be caused by increased cholesterol.
Viruses A very small pathogen that makes us ill. Invades your cells and copies itself until the cell bursts releasing the virus into the body.
Antibodies A chemical released by white blood cells to kill invading pathogens. Each pathogen needs a different antibody.
Antigens Molecules on the surface of a cell, like a fingerprint. If a pathogen enters the body the antigens can be used to identify them to the immune system.
Infectious disease A disease that can be caught and can spread easily.
Microorganism A small living thing e.g. bacteria, yeast, mould, fungi, parasite.
Toxins A poison produced by bacteria cells.
Anti-toxin A chemical produced by white blood cells, that neutralises toxins.
epedemics big outbreak of an infectious diesease.
painkillers drugs that relive pain.
antibiotics They kill and prevent growth of bacteria.
stimulus a change in your enviroment.
Receptors Groups of cells which are sensitive to stimuli
Reflexes Automatic responses to certain stimuli
Synapse The gap between two neurons that connects them via chemicals allowing messages to be passed on.
Reflex Arc The path that the information takes during a reflex action. e.g. eyes->spinal column->muscles
Hormones Chemicals sent in the blood to transfer messages. e.g. oestrogen produced in the ovaries tells the pituitary gland to stop producing FSH.
Pituitary Gland A part of the brain that produces hormones such as FSH.
Ovaries Part of the female reproductive system. This is where the egg cells are held before maturation and release. Also produces Oestrogen.
Pancreas An organ in the digestive system, produces insulin and controls the blood sugar levels.
Respiratory tract Breathing pipework, e.g. oesophagus
MRSA methicillin resistant staphylococcus aureus very dangerous bacteria which is resistant to most antibiotics e.g. penicillin.
immunisation Injecting a dead or inactive micro-organism into a living thing to protect against infections.
MMR vaccine A vaccine is a small amount of dead or inactive mirco-organisms injected into a person to protect them against an infection. MMR protects against measles, mumps and rubella.
booster injections a follow up of a vaccine
bacterial infection A disease caused by a bacteria. Can be treated by using antibiotics.
Inoculation loop Piece of sterile wire used to spread pathogen samples onto agar plates for culturing.
Monosodium Glutamate (MSG) Chemical often found in foods that can increase cravings for that food.
Pandemic An outbreak of an infectious disease that spreads to other countries as well, e.g. the plague.
Atom Simplest particle of a substance.
Element Simplest substance. Cannot be broken down into anything similar. Made up of the same type of atoms.
Compound Substances made up of more than one type of atom, chemically bonded together.
Molecule More than one atom chemically bonded together. Can be made of the same type of atom or different types of atoms.
Proton Subatomic particle found in the nucleus. Has a positive charge and a mass of 1 (relative atomic mass unit)
Neutron Subatomic particle found in the nucleus. Has no charge and a mass of 1 (RAMU).
Electron Subatomic particle found around the nucleus. Has a negative charge and mass of almost 0 (RAMU)
Solid State of matter. The substance is below the melting point. The particles have a low amount of energy and are arranged in neat rows.
Liquid State of matter. The substance is above the melting point but below the boiling point. The particles are close together but flow easily.
Gas State of matter. The substance is above the boiling point. The particles are free to move around the space.
Solution A chemical state. A solid dissolved in a solvent, usually water (appears like a liquid).
Plasma A state of matter found in the Sun. The subatomic particles are not held together and are free to move around. This makes fusion possible. Elements do not exist in a plasma state.
Acid A chemical (usually a solution) with an excess of H+ ions. Can be corrosive or harmful. e.g. HNO3, H2SO4, HCl
Activation Energy (E A) The minimum amount of energy needed to start a reaction off.
Alkali A base in solution. has an excess of OH- ions. Can be corrosive and harmful. e.g. NaOH, Ca(OH)2
Alkali metal Metals in group 1 e.g. Li, Na, K. They are very reactive, reactivity increases down the group. They produce strong alkaline solutions when reacted with water.
Alkane One of the homologous series of hydrocarbons. Alkanes contain only carbon and hydrogen and are fully saturated. One of the products of distilling crude oil.
Alkene One of the homologous series of hydrocarbons. Alkenes contain only hydrogen and carbon and are not fully saturated (have a C=C bond somewhere. Used to make plastics, one of the products of cracking.
Alloy A mixture of metals (can also include carbon), e.g. brass, bronze, steel
Anhydrous A word used to describe a chemical substance that has no moisture in the structure.
Anomalous result A result that does not fit the trend of the rest of the results. Should be re-tested. Can be left out of any calculations or conclusions.
Aqueous A solution. Shown with the symbol (aq) after the formula.
Atmosphere The layers of gases that surround the Earth. Allowing life to exist, keeping radiation out, regulating the Earth's temperature.
Atomic number The number of protons in the nucleus of an atom.
Bar chart A way of presenting categorical data e.g. colours.
Base A substance that will neutralise an acid. Usually dissolved in solution forming an alkali.
Biodegradable Can be broken down by natural processes (micro-organisms)
Biodiesel A diesel type fuel made from animal or plant products rather than crude oil.
Biofuel A fuel made from animal or plant products.
Bioleaching A way of extracting metals from low grade resources by using bacteria.
Blast furnace A large hot container where reactions take place, e.g. extraction of iron from iron oxide (ore).
Bond energy The amount of energy needed to break a specific type of bond.
Brine Salt water (NaCl+H2O)
Burette A type of equipment used to measure precise volumes of liquids into a conical flask.
Catalyst A chemical that speeds up the rate of a reaction with undergoing any permanent chemical change.
Catalytic Converter Part of a vehicle exhaust system that uses platinum to catalyse the removal of NO2 and CO from the exhaust gases.
Chromatography A method of separating substances using a solvent. Often used to test colourants.
Collision theory A way of explaining chemical reactions referencing the particles movement. If two particles collide with enough energy they will react.
Compound Two or more different types of atom, chemically bonded to each other.
Control Group Used in testing to provide an unaffected set of results for comparison.
Convection currents Energy transfer in fluids. Warm, less dense particles rise away from the heat source. As they cool they get denser and fall again. This creates a circular motion of particles.
Rich Ore An ore (rock) that contains a high percentage of the desired metal.
Core The centre of the Earth
Covalent bond When two non metals bond by sharing pairs of electrons to gain a full outer shell.
Cracking A way of gaining small chain hydrocarbons from long chain hydrocarbons. One product will always be an Alkene.
Crust The outer layer of the Earth (the bit we walk on).
Data A set of measures or results collected from a test. Can be qualitative (descriptive) or quantitative (values).
Delocalised electron An electron that is not attached to a specific atom. It is free to move around the substance.
Directly proportional A positive correlation with a specific relationship, i.e. when x doubles, y doubles. Directly proportional trends pass through 0,0
Displacement reaction Where a more reactive element takes the place of another e.g. Copper Oxide + Potassium --> Copper + Potassium Oxide
Distillation Evaporation, vapour is collected and condensed. It can be used as a way of purifying a solution, e.g. salt water into drinkable water.
Dot and Cross diagram A way of showing the bonding patterns of electrons.
Double bond A covalent bond where two pairs of electrons are shared rather than just one.
E numbers Food additives that have been approved for consumption in Europe. They can be used to improve appearance, flavour, longevity or smell.
Electrolysis A method of breaking down an ionic substance using electricity.
Electrolyte The solution used in electrolysis. The solution (or liquid) must contain free moving ions.
Electron A subatomic particle with a mass of almost zero and a charge of -1. The electrons move around outside the nucleus, the furthest ones out have the highest energy level.
Electronic structure (aka electron arrangement) The way the electrons are positioned around the nucleus. Can be represented by stating the numbers on each level e.g. Neon would be 2,8,8
Electroplating Using electrolysis to coat the outside of an item with another metal. Often used in jewellery to increase the durability of the metal.
Element The simplest chemical substance. Made up of only one type of atom. All elements can be found on the periodic table.
Empirical formula The simplest ratio of elements in a compound (not always the same as the actual molecular formula)
Emulsifier A substance which binds two immiscible substances together to form an emulsion, e.g. oil and water can be bound together with small amounts of washing up liquid.
Emulsion A mixture of two substances that do not normally mix. Requires another chemical as an emulsifier.
Endothermic A type of energy transfer in a chemical reaction. Energy is required by the reaction so is absorbed from the surroundings. This will make the reaction feel cold as heat energy is absorbed from your skin.
End point When all of the reactants have been used up the reaction has reached the end point.
Energy level The shells around a nucleus that contain electrons.
Equilibrium The balance point of a reversible reaction where the forward reaction happens at the same rate as the backward reaction.
Error An uncertainty in a test. Could be caused by a piece of equipment not being calibrated properly.
Human error An error that occurs because of the person doing the test, e.g. colour judgement, or reaction times.
Systematic error An error that occurs every single time.
Random error Errors that have no pattern, cause the data set to spread out around the trend. It can be minimised by taking more readings and calculating a mean.
Zero error An error caused by a piece of equipment not reading an exact zero at the beginning.
Evidence Valid data that can be used to prove a hypothesis.
Exothermic An energy transfer in a reaction. Excess energy is produced by the reaction and is released into the surroundings as heat. The reaction would feel hot to the touch.
Fair test A test where all possible variables have been controlled except for the test condition (Independent variable).
Fermentation When sugars go through anaerobic respiration to produce ethanol. The process can be sped up using yeast.
Flammable Substances that are easily ignited are described as flammable.
Food additive A chemical that is added to food to make it taste better, last longer, look more appealing or smell better.
Fraction A group of hydrocarbons with similar condensation points.
Fractional distillation A way of separating hydrocarbons into groups based on their evaporation/condensation point. Petrol is a fraction.
Fullerene Carbon molecules made up of hexagonal rings of carbon. Can form large 3D molecules like cages.
Functional group The part of a molecule that defines what homologous series it fits into and how it will react, e.g. an OH group makes an alcohol.
Gas A state of matter with a low density. Particles are free to move around. Shown by a (g) after the chemical formula.
Gas chromatography A method of separating mixtures into each constituent part, e.g. air can be separated into nitrogen, oxygen, argon etc.
Giant covalent structure 3D molecules made up of a large number of atoms bonded together, e.g. diamond.
Giant lattice A 3D network of atoms or ions held together in a lattice structure e.g. sodium chloride.
Global dimming Environmental pollution caused by solid particulates blocking out the sun.
Global warming A type of climate change where an increase in greenhouse gases causes an increase in the average global temperature.
Group The columns in the periodic table represent groups of elements. They have similar reactive properties because of their similar electron arrangements.
Half equation An equation that is only concerned with one element and the relative movement of electrons.
Hardening The process of saturating vegetable oils by adding hydrogen.
Hard water Water that contains higher quantities of dissolved calcium and/or magnesium deposits.
High-alloy steel Iron mixed with high proportions of other metals. Relatively expensive e.g. stainless steel.
Homologous series Groups of compounds with the same functional groups that react in similar ways.
Hydrated Has had water added.
Hydration A reaction that adds water to a compound.
Hydrocarbon A compound containing only hydrogen and carbon.
Hydrogenated oil An unsaturated oil that has had hydrogen added to it to saturate it.
Hydrophilic A substance which is attracted to water molecules.
Hydrophobic A molecule that is water repellent.
Hypothesis An idea that can be tested by experiment.
Incomplete combustion When a fuel is burnt with insufficient oxygen.
Inert Unreactive. The Noble gases (group 8/0) are inert elements.
Intermolecular forces Forces of attraction between molecules. Weaker than covalent or ionic bonds but can be strong enough to create a solid e.g. Iodine (I2)
Ion A charged particle. Atoms become ions when the number of electrons is different to the number of protons.
Ion-exchange column A piece of equipment that can be used to soften hard water by replacing the Ca and Mg ions with Na or H ions.
Ionic bond A strong force of attraction between two oppositely charged ions.
Isotope Elements that have the same proton number but different numbers of neutrons are isotopes of each other.
Line graph Used to represent continuous data. Points are plotted and a trend is shown using a line/curve of best fit.
Liquid A state of matter. Particles are not in a rigid structure and are free to move but stay in contact. Represented with the symbol (l) after the formula.
Low-alloy steel Iron mixed with small amounts of other materials.
Macromolecule Another name for a giant covalent structure.
Mantle The majority of the internal structure of the Earth, beneath the crust. Made of solid rock but behaves like a fluid due to the heat and radiation from the core causing convection currents in the particles.
Mass number The relative atomic mass of an atom is the total mass of the protons plus the neutrons.
Mass spectrometer A piece of equipment. It analyses a substance to find out the mass of the molecules.
Mean Another word for average. Calculating the mean can help to minimise any errors in measurements.
Mixture More than one chemical substance in the same place, but without any chemical bonds to each other e.g. sand and soil.
Mole A specific number of particles of a substance. One mole of particles will turn the relative mass into an actual mass in grams. i.e. Carbon has an Ar of 12, 1 mole of carbon weighs 12g
Molecular formula A short way of representing a chemical using the chemical symbols from the periodic table along with showing the numbers of each element as well.
Molecular ion peak The peak on a Mass Spec that represents the total mass of the original molecule.
Molecule More than one atom chemically joined to each other. Can be made of different atoms or the same type of atom e.g. O2
Monomer A single molecule that can be joined to other molecules to create a polymer.
Nanoscience The study of very small particles. Nanoparticles measure between 1-100nm. 1nm is 0.000000001m
Neutral A solution with equal amounts of H+ and OH- would be neutral. It would have a pH of 7. Pure water is neutral.
Neutralisation A type of reaction. An alkali has a pH of over 7, adding an acid will bring the pH back towards 7. When it reaches 7 it has been neutralised.
Neutron A subatomic particle found in the nucleus. Is has a mass of 1 and no overall charge.
Non-renewable A fuel that is limited, we cannot make more of it. Coal is non-renewable, once it has been used up it is all gone.
Atomic nucleus The centre of an atom where the protons and neutrons can be found.
Ore A rock that has a high enough percentage of a specific mineral to make it economical to extract.
Oxidation When an atom (or ion) loses an electron in a reaction is has been oxidised. Can also mean when oxygen has been added to a substance.
Particulate A solid pollutant. Particles of soot are given of when fossil fuels burn without enough oxygen.
Percentage yield A way of measuring the efficiency of a reaction as a percentage of the total possible product made.
Periodic table A reference diagram showing all of the known elements in order of their proton number. Provides information such as, mass, group, period, and chemical symbol.
Permanent hard water Hard water contains calcium and/or magnesium ions. Permanent hard water means that these salts cannot just be boiled out.
pH scale A measure of how acidic or basic a substance is.
Phytomining Using plants to extract minerals from low grade resources, e.g. copper can be extracted from soil by growing specific plants then harvesting, burning and electrolysing the ashes.
Pipette A piece of equipment used to measure small amounts of liquids. A volumetric pipette is a glass tube that measures a specific volume. A dropping pipette is a plastic tube used to measure out liquids drop by drop.
Polymer A substance made up of many molecules joined together. Alkenes join together to form plastic polymers.
Polymerisation The reaction that produces polymers.
Precipitate A solid formed from combining two liquids.
Prediction Suggesting what the outcome of an experiment will be, based on the available data and scientific knowledge/theories.
Product The substances formed in a chemical reaction.
Proton A subatomic particle found in the nucleus. It has a mass of 1 and an overall charge of +1.
Range The lowest to the highest measurement taken or used.
Reactant The chemicals that you put into a reaction.
Reactivity series A list of reactive metals in order from most reactive (potassium) to least reactive (platinum). NOTE does not include all elements, can also include non metals for reference.
Reduction When an atom/ion gains an electron it has been reduced.
Relationship When two variables affect each other, they have a relationship. e.g. if you change one the other will change as a result.
Relative atomic mass The mass of an atom as given on the periodic table.
Relative formula mass (aka relative molecular mass) The mass of a molecule calculated by adding the relative atomic masses of each constituent atom.
Repeatable If an experiment is done another time, similar results will be recorded.
Reproducible If someone else performs a similar experiment they will see similar results (e.g. using a different acid)
Respiration The chemical process that releases energy from sugar using oxygen. The energy is used by all living cells. Carbon dioxide is produced.
Resolution The lowest measurable quantity on a piece of equipment, e.g. most rulers can measure 1mm so the resolution is 1mm.
Retention time The amount of time a substance takes to get though a Gas Chromatograph.
Reversible reaction A reaction which can be reversed, e.g. heating CuSO4.5H2O will remove the water, this requires energy. Adding the water back in creates CuSO4.5H2O again and gives off energy.
Salt An ionic substance made from a metal and a non metal, e.g. Sodium Chloride (NaCl). Usually made by adding metal to acid, the metal replaces the hydrogen in the acid.
Limescale The calcium deposits left behind when hard water is boiled.
Scum The deposits left behind when the metal ions in hard water react with soap.
Shape memory alloy A metal alloy made into a specific shape. It can be twisted, bent and stretched but will return to it's original shape under certain conditions like temperature increase or electrical current.
Shell Energy levels around the nucleus of an atom, where electrons occupy.
Smart polymer A plastic that changes shape in response to a change in environment e.g. temperature increase, exposure to UV light.
Smelting A method of extracting metals from ores by heating. Also called roasting.
Soft water Water that does not contain high levels of calcium/magnesium ions.
Solid A state of matter. Particles are arranged in rigid regular structures and do not move freely. Represented with an (s) after the chemical formula.
Stainless steel Iron alloy containing chromium and nickel. Does not rust or react. Used for cutlery, building supplies, and low cost jewellery like earrings where corrosion or skin reaction could be an issue.
State symbol (s) (l) (g) (aq) used to show the physical state of a substance in a chemical formula.
Steel A range of iron based alloys.
Symbol equation A way of writing a chemical reaction using the chemical symbols from the periodic table rather than the name of the substance (so water would say H2O instead)
Tectonic plates The separate parts of the Earth's crust. They float on the mantle and slowly move due to the convection currents.
Temporary hard water Water that contains a high level of calcium/magnesium ions which can be softened by boiling the water.
Thermal decomposition Breaking down a substance using heat.
Thermosetting polymer A plastic that once heated and shaped will set and not soften again. Crosslinks form across the polymer chains holding them in shape. Heating a thermosetting polymer again causes charring instead of softening.
Thermosoftening polymer A polymer that will soften every time it is heated. This means that it can be reshaped while hot and will go rigid in the new shape when cooled.
Titration A method of measuring accurate volumes of liquids needed for a reaction.
Transition element An element found in the central block of the periodic table. Transition elements are mainly metals and have multiple oxidation states.
Trial run A run through of an experiment to make sure it works. Can also be used to get a rough set of data.
Universal indicator A solution that changes colour depending on the pH of the substance it has been added to. Goes red in acids and purple in alkalis.
Saturated hydrocarbons Molecules containing only carbon and hydrogen where all bonds are fulfilled i.e. no double bonds
Unsaturated hydrocarbons Molecules containing only carbon and hydrogen where not all of the bonds are fulfilled i.e. contains C=C double bond.
Unsaturated oil An oil that contains molecules with C=C double bonds. Usually plant oils.
Valid The procedure will test the hypothesis given i.e. control variables are accounted for.
Variable One of the possible changes that could be made during an experiment, e.g. temperature, concentration, time, chemical etc.
Categoric variable A variable that does not have continuous data e,g, groups of ages, colours, pets
Continuous variable A variable that can be measured on a continuous scale e.g. time, temperature, length, speed
Control variable Things that could change and affect an experiment. They must be kept the same to ensure a valid and fair test, e.g. always use the same volume of acid and the same temperature.
Independent variable The test variable. This is the factor that you will change to test your hypothesis, e.g. concentration
Dependent variable The result. This is the thing you will measure to see the effect that the IV had, e.g. time taken.
Vegetable oil The oils extracted from plants, e.g. sunflower, olive, peanut.
Viscosity How "gloopy" a substance is. Water is not very viscous. Syrup is highly viscous.
Word equation A way of representing a reaction by writing the names of the chemicals involved.
Yield The amount of product made from a reaction.
Abdomen The lower region of the body, contains the digestive organs.
Acid Rain Rain that has a low pH due to pollution usually sulphuric or nitric acid.
Active site The area on an enzyme where the molecule bonds to be broken down.
Active transport The movement of substances across a membrane against the concentration gradient. Requires energy.
Adaptation Special feature of a life form to help it survive in it's environment.
Adult cell cloning When the nucleus from an adult cell of one animal it put into the empty egg cell of another animal. The embryo is then implanted into the uterus of a third animal to develop.
Aerobic respiration. Breaking down food using oxygen to produce energy and carbon dioxide.
Agar The jelly used to grow cultures in petri dishes. Contains nutrients for samples to live off.
Algal cells Cells of algae. Not technically plants but can photosynthesise.
Allele A variation of one single gene.
Alveoli Tiny air sacs in the lungs, they increase the surface area to maximise the amount of oxygen intake.
Amino acids Building blocks of proteins.
Amylase A type of enzyme that breaks down carbohydrates e.g. bread. Produced in the pancreas and the salivary glands.
Anaerobic respiration Breaking down food with no/insufficient oxygen. Releases energy but can cause production of ethanol (yeast), or lactic acid (muscles).
Antibiotic A drug that destroys bacteria without destroying human cells.
Antigen The unique protein on the surface of every cell allows it to be recognised by the immune system.
Aorta The main artery coming out of the heart carrying oxygenated blood from the left ventricle.
Artery Blood vessel carrying blood away from the heart, carries oxygenated blood, has a pulse.
Asexual reproduction A type of reproduction that only needs one individual. The offspring carry the exact DNA of the parent. No gametes are involved.
Atria The upper chambers of the heart (smaller than the bottom chambers). The right receives blood from the body and the left receives blood from the lungs.
Auxin A plant hormone that encourages or inhibits growth. Reacts to light, water, gravity etc.
Bacteria Single cell organism. Can reproduce rapidly. Some cause disease, some exist naturally in the body and are helpful.
Bacterial colony Populations of bacteria growth when cultured.
Bi-concave disc The shape of the red blood cell, concave on the top and bottom so the cell is thicker round the edges and thinner in the middle.
Bile Digestive juice produced in the liver, yellowy green colour, stored in the gall bladder. Emulsifies fats in the small intestines.
Biodiversity The number and variety of different organisms found in a specified area.
Biological detergent Washing soap that contains enzymes to help the break down of dirt molecules.