Renin plays a role in blood pressure regulation by
activating the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone cascade.
decreasing sodium reabsorption
suppressing angiotensin production
inhibiting aldosterone release
The patient is getting hemodialysis for the second time when he complains of a headache and nausea and, a little later, of becoming confused. The nurse realizes these are symptoms of
a shift in potassium levels.
dialyzer membrane incompatibility.
dialysis disequilibrium syndrome
Slow continuous ultrafiltration is also known as isolated ultrafiltration and is used to
remove plasma water and solutes by adding dialysate.
combine ultrafiltration, convection, and dialysis.
remove plasma water in cases of volume overload
remove fluids and solutes through the process of convection.
An advantage of peritoneal dialysis is that
a decreased risk of peritonitis exists.
biochemical disturbances are corrected rapidly.
the danger of hemorrhage is minimal.
peritoneal dialysis is time intensive
The patient is admitted with upper GI bleeding following an episode of forceful retching following excessive alcohol intake. The nurse suspects a Mallory-Weiss tear and is aware that
Mallory-Weiss tear is a longitudinal tear in the gastroesophageal mucosa
the bleeding, although impressive, is self-limiting with little actual blood loss
this type of bleeding is treated by giving chewable aspirin.
it is not usually associated with alcohol intake or retching.
Trends in nutritional management of the patient with pancreatitis are changing. As a result, the nurse understands that
patients with pancreatitis must eat nothing in order to prevent release of secretin.
nasogastric suction is essential in treating patients with pancreatitis
nasogastric tube is no longer required to treat patients with ileus.
immediate oral feeding in patients with mild pancreatitis may help recovery.
When assessing bowel sounds, the nurse
listens for 5 minutes before noting “absent bowel sounds
expects bowel sounds to be regular in rhythm.
uses the “bell” part of the stethoscope
listens at least 15 minutes
The nurse is assessing the patient and notices that the oral cavity is only slightly moist and contains a scant amount of thick saliva even though the patient’s fluid intake has been sufficient. The nurses realizes that the condition of the patient’s mouth is probably caused by
sympathetic nerve stimulation
thoughts of food.
overstimulation of the sublingual glands
parasympathetic nerve stimulation
The nurse is caring for a patient with active GI bleeding. Estimated blood loss is 1,000 mL. Which of the following assessments would the nurse expect to find with this amount of blood loss?
Heart rate 125 beats per minute
Oral temperature of 103°.
All vital signs would expect to be normal
Systolic blood pressure of 120 mm Hg.
The nurse is caring for a patient with severe ascites due to chronic liver failure. The patient is lying supine in bed and complaining of difficulty breathing. The nurse’s first action should be to
position the patient in a semi-Fowler’s position
prepare the patient for emergent paracentesis.
measure abdominal girth to determine the amount of fluid accumulation.
The term used to describe an increase in blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and serum creatinine is
acute kidney injury.
A patient with newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes is being transitioned from an infusion of intravenous (IV) regular insulin to an intensive insulin therapy regimen of insulin glargine and insulin aspart. How should the nurse manage this transition in insulin delivery?
Administer the insulin glargine and continue the IV insulin infusion for 24 hours.
Discontinue the IV infusion and administer the Lantus insulin at bedtime
Discontinue the IV infusion and administer the insulin aspart with the next meal.
Administer the insulin glargine and discontinue the IV infusion in several hours.
The nurse is caring for a patient who has sustained blunt trauma to the left flank area, and is evaluating the patient’s urinalysis results. The nurse should become concerned when
red blood cells and albumin are found in the urine.
sodium and chloride are found in the urine.
creatinine levels in the urine are similar to blood levels of creatinine.
urine uric acid levels have the same values as serum levels.
The nurse is caring for an elderly patient who was admitted with renal insufficiency. An expected laboratory finding for this patient may be
a normal serum creatinine level.
an increased glomerular filtration rate (GFR).
increased ability to excrete drugs.
The patient has been admitted to the hospital with nausea and vomiting that started 5 days earlier. Blood pressure is 80/44 mm Hg and heart rate is 122 beats/min; the patient has not voided in 8 hours, and the bladder is not distended. The nurse anticipates a prescription for “stat” administration of
fluid replacement with 0.45% saline.
a blood transfusion
infusion of an inotropic agent.
The nurse is caring for a patient who is receiving several cardiac medications designed to stimulate the sympathetic nervous system, vitamin B 12, and an H 2 blocker. The nurse should do which of the following?
Evaluate for a decrease in potassium level.
Give the patient medications to prevent anemia.
Assess for signs of peptic ulcer.
Be watchful for increased saliva production
What psychosocial factors may potentially contribute to the development of diabetic ketoacidosis? ( Select all that apply.)
Exposure to influenza
Lack of financial resources
Altered sleep/rest patterns
High levels of stress
Which of the following would be seen in a patient with myxedema coma?
The patient is admitted with acute kidney injury from a postrenal cause. Acceptable treatments for that diagnosis include: ( Select all that apply.)
increasing fluid volume intake
placement of nephrostomy tubes.
increasing cardiac output
A patient presents to the emergency department with the following clinical signs:
Pulse: 132 beats/min
Blood pressure: 88/50 mm Hg
Respiratory rate: 32 breaths/min
Chest x-ray: Findings consistent with congestive heart failure
Cardiac rhythm: Atrial fibrillation with rapid ventricular response
These signs are consistent with which disorder?
Syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone (SIADH)
The nurse is assigned to care for a patient who presented to the emergency department with diabetic ketoacidosis. A continuous insulin intravenous infusion is started, and hourly bedside glucose monitoring is ordered. The targeted blood glucose value after the first hour of therapy is
a decrease of 35 to 90 mg/dL compared with admitting values.
70 to 120 mg/dL.
a decrease of 25 to 50 mg/dL compared with admitting values
less than 200 mg/dL
Acute kidney injury from postrenal etiology is caused by
hypovolemia or decreased cardiac output.
obstruction of the flow of urine.
conditions that act directly on functioning kidney tissue
conditions that interfere with renal perfusion.
Peritoneal dialysis is different from hemodialysis in that peritoneal dialysis
is not indicated in cases of water intoxication.
is not useful in cases of drug overdose or electrolyte imbalance
uses the patient’s own semipermeable membrane (peritoneal membrane).
is more frequently used for acute kidney injury.
A patient is receiving hydrocortisone sodium succinate for adrenal crisis. What other medication does the nurse prepare to administer?
A proton pump inhibitor
In hyperosmolar hyperglycemic syndrome, the laboratory results are similar to those of diabetic ketoacidosis, with three major exceptions. What differences would you expect to see in patients with hyperosmolar hyperglycemic syndrome?
Higher serum glucose, higher osmolality, and greater ketosis
Lower serum glucose, lower osmolality, and greater ketosis
Higher serum glucose, higher osmolality, and no ketosis
Lower serum glucose, lower osmolality, and milder ketosis