AQA Human Geography

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Note on AQA Human Geography, created by georgie.proctor on 05/20/2014.

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GCSE Geography Case Studies (OCR)
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GEOGRAPHY CASE STUDIES
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Page 1

GEOGRAPHY HUMAN CASE STUDIES

CHANGING URBAN ENVIRONMENTS

Revitalising a Central Business District- Liverpool

1980's- desperate need for improvement. First flagship project was The Albert Dock:Previously area abandoned and derelict as a working dock. After 15 years became a popular tourist destination 4 million tourists visit the dock a year to visit attractions like museums, art galleries and shops Increase in tourism huge economic boost for Liverpool 2004, Liverpool's waterfront became a UNESCO World Heritage Site, with many piers and ferry terminals being revitalised and the rebuilding of the Museum of Liverpool Life- recognised as an important historic destination. To the south of the Albert Dock, newly developed King's Waterfront: spanning 15 ha, what was once one of the city's most underdeveloped areas contains the Liverpool Echo Arena, seating 11,000 people and used to host multiple events- BBC sports personality of the year. Liverpool a city of culture and sport highly popular with the tourist industry.8-10 million tourists a year, 10th most visited destination in the UK Largest example of a rejuvenation project = Liverpool 1 shopping centre: Once a site of warehousing became a huge shopping attraction 'paradise project' during development Despite huge cost of £1 billion, Liverpool 1 attracted 22 million shoppers in opening 12 months and now has monthly visitor figures of over £2 million  UK's 5th most desirable retail location

Inner City Development- The London Docklands

(others are city challenge and comprehensive development areas)1980's - 1998 Urban Development Corporations- property led regeneration where UDC's are in charge of encouraging private sector investment to stimulate redevelopment and regeneration London Docklands Development Corporation- one of the first UDC's- 1981- 1988 in conjunction with the Isle of Dogs Enterprise Zone in Eastern London. Before the 1950's busiest port in the world but by 1981 large container ships could no longer reach the port and resulted in unemployment, dereliction (50% of land) and lack of services, amenities, space and poor transport. Area now known as Canary Wharf.  REGENERATION: Social- over 22,000 new homes, 10,000 council homes refurbished, population increase 39,400-85,300, 40% of homes owner occupied (compared to 5% previously), £100 million spent on health, education, job training and community programmes. Economic- improved transport, New City Airport- 0.5 million passengers every year, Jubilee Line Extension, 29 km Docklands Light Railway- 350,000 people per week, 135 km new roads- including M11 link, employment increased from 27,000 to 71,000, number of businesses increased from 1,000 to 2,400.  Environmental- 760 ha of derelict land reclaimed, 2,000 trees planted, 17 conservation areas set up, 150 ha of open space created.

Transport- London

Before 2003, over 40,000 vehicles drove in every morning and 50% of driving was spent in queues. This congestion cost the local economy £2-4 million pounds per week and meant that by 1993, average speeds during rush hours fell below 10mph 17th Feb 2003, congestion charging was introduced where you had to pay a £5 charge to enter the charging zone (now £8 since 2005), enforced through ANPR camera- fined if you don't pay. Transport for London investing in improving the tube network whilst the city now has an integrated public transport system due to its large tube network connecting with major railway lines, and its dense bus network in addition to the recent 'Boris Bikes scheme'. By 2006, congestion decreased by 30% with 50,000 fewer vehicles entering the charging zone. 6% more people use buses and car journey times are 14% faster. 20% fewer accidents within the charging zone. 1% carbon dioxide reduction and 14.9 million litres of fuel saved. Charge raises approximately £100 million per year, reinvested into improving the public transport system. 

Squatter settlements- Kibera, Nairobi, Kenya

Characteristics: high levels of informal employment constant expansion build up of landfill/ rubbish everywhere poor quality and quantity of water diseases

high death rate very high population density poor environmental quality poor santitation open sewage

60% of Nairobi's population live in shanty towns with Kibera covering an area of 3.9 km2, 6.4 km south of the capital city.Estimated population of 1m people with each slum dweller having an average of just 1m2 of spaceIt is Kenya's largest slum with each standpipe and latrine catering for 50 shacks or 300 people. Average shack measures just 3.6m by 3.6m and is constructed from tin, cardboard and plastic sheeting- as a result they tend to lack structural integrity and waterproofing.  Informal employment, prostitution, sewage disposed in the river = poor sanitation and disease (cholera and typhoid), crime However there is a high community spirit, homes are kept clean and residents welcome visitors.  100,000 orphans estimated due to HIV

Management: In the 1960's, the city authorities tried eviction but didn't work Since 1999, Christian Aid have worked with a local organisation (MNU) to install water and sanitation blocks which require a small fee for usage and have locals paid to maintain them.  MNU have also lobbied for authorities to collect rubbish from a central point = NGO support UN- electricity scheme = NGO support Gap year students encouraged to go overseas and help co-ordinate efforts in Kenya Practical Action, a British charity, produced low cost roofing tiles made from sand and clay and adding lime and natural fibre to soil used for building blocks that are cheaper than concrete = NGO support SELF HELP SCHEMES- local authority supports the residents in improving their homes by helping them to learn skills and purchase materials SITE AND SERVICE SCHEMES- Dandora Scheme- land is identified and infrastructure (concrete base, water, sanitation and electricity) is laid in advance of residents settling in, where they can build and improve their home as they can afford to

Sustainable Urban Living- Curitiba, Brazil

Population of 2 million, achieved as the dream of former mayor of Jaime Lerner One of the first cities to provide a recycling scheme in 1980's- 2/3 recycling rate but no cost rate, separated into organic and inorganic- 3,600 tonnes of waste recycled each year - 35,000 pounds per month Second hand library and museum containing disposed gems Solution of the parks- river banks turned into parks with trees to solve persistent flooding issues (& excess water diverted into lakes) & stopping areas turning into shanty towns- over 1,000 parks Disused factories turned into community facilities Developers allowed to build taller skyscrapers if they create green spaces or pay the council to do so. Integrated transport system:

dedicated bus lanes in centre of roads express routes, ring roads and local roads above ground routes have been developed instead of a costly subway bi-articulated buses that carry more passengers per driver Bus companies paid by km, not by number of passengers to ensure wide coverage and all routes being well serviced

a normal bus carries about 1,000 passengers per day, in the express lane= 2,000 articulated = 3,000 and bi-articulated = 4,000 Pay low bus fares in advance at bus stop to increase efficiency (quicker boarding = less idling = less pollution and journey times cut by a third overall

The green exchange- agricultural overproducers are paid by the council to exchange fruit and veg for cardboard boxes and scrap metal from locals 99% of residents happy with their town.  200 km of bike paths Green space increased from 0.5 m2 per person in 1970 to 52m2 per person in 1990

GEOGRAPHY HUMAN CASE STUDIES

TOURISM

Lake District- National Park

Cumbria, North-West England, stretches 64km from North to South and 53 km from East to West.Became a national park in 1951ATTRACTIONS: stunning scenery, abundant wildlife and cultural heritage glaciated upland area hiking, watersports (windsailing, powerboating), fishing, climbing, birdwatching, wildlife photography, historical and cultural sites (walls = evidence of early settlements ribbon lakes and tarns part of a unique and hugely varied landscape, as well as a major recreational resource.  Lake Windemere- specializes in ferry cruises- small boats allowed on many lakes areas set aside for windsailing and powerboating  so activities dont clash with quiet areas. Fishing from shore or boats is increasing in popularity walking- public access to the fells (open uplands) is unrestricted Historical attraction- guides to the lake district by famous poets, evidence of early settlement = drystone walls from farming, Beatrix Potter- Hill Top Lake Windemere

IMPACTS:No. of tourists outweigh local population.. Traffic problems: 89% of visitors come by car often just for the day- many roads are narrow and buses and large delivery vehicles have to use these- queue's a common problem, as well as congestion and parking- not enough car parks so vehicles park on grass verges, causing serious damage. Honeypot sites: both physical and cultural (historic houses)- Cat Bells- smaller mountain and easy climb so suffers from serious footpath erosion- scarred landscapes (4m people walk at least 6km a year). Bowness and Hilltop are other honeypot sites. Property Pressure- 20% of property second homes or holiday let accommodation. Positively, local people make income from owning and letting such property. Negatively, holiday cottages not occupied all year, same true of second homes, holidaymakers dont always support local businesses (doing a supermarket shop at home before), demand for property from outsiders increase property prices, causes problems for local people who are forced out to find affordable accommodation on the edge of the region Environmental Issues- water sports (although not allowed on all lakes)- wash from this erodes the shore and fuel spills not uncommon (causing pollution)

MANGEMENT:1997- Lake District National Park Authority Management Plan Traffic solutions- plan an efficient road network, County Strategic Roads, often dual carriageways built on edges of Lake District to help move traffic more efficiently- Distributor roads- link small towns and key tourist villages, choice of roads splitting traffic, Traffic calming measures in villages, Cattle grids in the countryside and on overall max. speed limit, heavy lorries kept off scenic routes. Public transport, park and ride schemes  Honeypot management- Footpaths- repairing and reinforcing path surfaces, signpointing routes (encourages people to stay on paths). Parking- fence off roadsides so people can't damage verges, develop small new car parks hidden by landscaping, reinforce car park surfaces (waffles- large concrete slabs with holes where soil and grass grows (hard, green surface) - Litter- bins provided and emptied regularly, designated picnic areas, signs encouraging people to reduce litter Property prices- little done yet- local authorities could build more homes for rent or sale. Environmental Issues- speed limits can reduce the amount of wash cost- but clashes with the pressure of the sport- speed limit in Lake Windemere is 18kph

TOURIST CONFLICTS AND OPPURTUNITIES Tourism and farming- trample crops and disturb livestock, signs and education prevent this, income made from B&B accommodation converted from farm buildings. Paintballing and pony trekking can be offered Employment- primarily positive as jobs created, however, seasonality a problem as well as low pay

Tourism in a MEDC- Dubai

Located in United Arab Emirates and neighbours Saudi Arabia, easily accessible from Europe, Asia and Africa (120 airlines fly there)Huge amount of economic growth and tourism industry is growing rapidly. Tourism crucial to Dubai's economy, which had a GDP of $90 billion last yearTOURIST ATTRACTIONS: duty free shopping malls sight seeing- markets, zoos, theme parks   dhow-building yards water sports and diving are popular world's tallest tower- skyscraper Burj Khalifa

Physical- excursions out from the city to see the desert and its wildlife birdwatching trips to take visitors to the wetland mudflat areas- 400 species

EFFECTS: Positive- local economy- tourist boom resulted from a succesful marketing campaign, changing face of Dubai with hotels and apartment blocks built,- dramatic change in skyline and shoreline Negative- deterioration of the natural environment, increase in CO2 emissions, increased use of energy and food sources, leakage, widening of gap between rich and poor, reclaimed sea area (palm island) detrimental to fishing and sea life, arab culture diminished

Tourism in a LEDC- Sri Lanka

30 year long internal conflict (civil war) and 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami negative impact on tourism and growth of industry stagnated However after conflict ended (2009), improved Authentic tourism destination, compact island where a tourist can travel the length and breadth of the country within a few days Diversity of the tourism product is unparalleled.  ATTRACTIONS = 8 world heritage sites, wildlife, sports and adventure, mind and body wellness- spas, religious/ cultural festivals, beaches- Arugam Bay, year round beach destination as it is an islandEFFECTS OF TOURISM Positive: local people emplyed as waiters and tour guides, tourists spend holiday money and foreign exchange is essential to poorer countries- can be used to buy goods and services from abroad, extra jobs created indirectly- hotels buy produce form local suppliers, small businesses started up to serve tourists- eg taxis, bars and restaurants, building and maintenance workers Negative: culture and civilisation diminished, young men and girls brought into prostitution, increase in the price of goods as a result of tourist hotels, local people cannot pay the same prices.

Blackpool- Coastal Resort

BUTLER MODEL- exploration, involvement, development, consolidation, stagnation, rejuvenation or declineLocated on the Lancashire Coast in the North-West of EnglandRISE OF BLACKPOOL small village during 18th century, however construction of the railway network in 1846 meant more people could visit Industrial Revolution- the working class (factory workers) had holidays and visited Blackpool for the seaside Blackpool grew and expanded during the Victorian Times- mass tourism 1899- seawall protections, 2 mile wall, protection from coastal erosion 1872 = 850,000 tourists, 1931- 3,850,000, after WW2- 17 million ATTRACTIONS Piers- North 1863, Central 1868, South 1893 Raikes Hall Pleasure Gardens- lake, racecourse, football and cricket ground, skating rinnk, aviary, monkey house,ballroom and a theatre Winter Gardens Blackpool tower, circus and ballroom Blackpool illuminations, Blackpool pleasure beach Opera houses, Blackpool zoo DECLINE In 1987, visitor nights declined from 16m to 10.5m, average annual hotel occupancy reduced to 22%, annual day visits declined from 7.4m to 3.9m, between 1979-1988- 39m visitor nights lost (competition from overseas holidays), air travel became more affordable, people had more disposable income, cheap package holidays abroad, 1990's stagnation- spending down so residents lost their livelihoods and jobs- social and economic problems Negative Ripple Effect- no tourism leads to no money, no investment leads to no industry, no employment etc 1971- 6.7m abroad, 2009 58.5m Prices dropped in order to become more competitive- however cheaper accommodation, food and alcohol changed name- attracting a new type of visitor, those looking for cheap nights out- hen and stag parties- encouraged antisocial behaviour = downmarket drift Long term investment needed- no quick fix REJUVENATION Long term investment vital, both private and public Attractions moved to public sector, new leisure brands- MERLIN- new accommodation, attractions- international investment In 2003, a rejuvenation project started: 26,700 new jobs to be created, 127 ha of brownfield sites redeveloped, 7m additional visitors per year New art centre on the south shore. The Solaris Centre built which is a centre for environmental education and the promotion of sustainable tourism- developed by Blackpool and Lancaster universities 2004= 11 m visitors

Mass tourism- Kenya

Mass tourism= organised tourism for large numbers of people (eg package holidays) Location and key facts= East Africa- capital is Nairobi, total population of 36m, 700,000 visitors per year, borders with Ethiopia, Sudan, Uganda and Tanzania Why people visit = TRIBAL CULTURE, WILDLIFE (the big five (rhino, lion, elephant, buffalo, leapord), wildlife safaris, 80% of visitors go for this, WARM CLIMATE (all year round, Indian Ocean coastline), SCENERY, savannah, mountains, coral reefs, beaches and forests POSITIVE IMPACTSECONOMIC:

Tourism contributes 15% of the country's GNP in 2003, around 219,000 people worked in the tourist industry, 250,000 indirect in tourist- related businesses Other economic sectors (agriculture, drinks, transport, entertainment) also benefit fromits multiplier effect ENVIRONMENTAL23 national parks in Kenya, eg Nairobinational park. Tourists have to pay entry fees to get in which is used to maintain the national parks, which help protect the environment and wildlifeSOCIAL Jobs (see economic) the culture and customs of the native Maasai Mara tribe are preserved because things like traditional dancing are often displayed for tourists

NEGATIVE IMPACTSECONOMIC: Only 15% of money earned from tourists goes to locals, the rest goes to big companies (leakage) Visitor numbers drop due to alleged violence and the danger of Kenya (2002 missile attack on an aircraft and a car bomb outside Mombasa Hotel which killed 13 people resulted in lost tourist income calculated at US $1 million per day in early 2003) also riots ENVIRONMENTAL Safari vehicles have destroyed vegetation and caused soil erosion Wild animals have been affected- eg cheetahs in the most heavily visited areas have changed there hunting behaviour to avoid the crowds Coral reefs in the Malindi Marine National Park have been damaged by tourists boats anchoring Numbers of wildebeest on annual migration dropped from 800,000 to 300,000 in 20 years Kenya Wildlife service responsible for the game parks- under resourced, poorly paid employees more open to bribery. 

SOCIAL Some Maasai tribespeople were forced off their land to create national parks for tourists Some Muslim people in Kenya are offended by the way female tourists dress Less than 2% of the money spent at Maasai Mara Park benefited the local Maasai people.

MANAGEMENT Walking or horseback tours being promoted over vehicle safaris, to preserve vegetation Alternative activities that are less damaging than safaris are also being encouraged- eg climbing and white water rafting Kenya's Tourist Board and Ministry of Tourism have launched an advertising campaign in Russia called 'Magical Kenya' KWS is planning to build airstrips in Ruma National Park and Mount Elga National Park to make them more accessible for tourists. It also plans to spend £8 million improving roads and bridges Visa fees for adults were cut by 50% in 2009 to make it cheaper to visit the country. They were also scrapped for children under 16 to encourage more families to visit Kenya national tourism master plan:

open up new avenues of tourism- adventure activities better distribution of tourist activities throughout the country- reduce environmental pressure on tourist hotspots curb tourist numbers in over-visited parks like the Maasai Mara and increasing income by doubling entry fees Ecotourism

Extreme environments- Antarctica

Continent of the Earth's South Pole. Covers and area of 14 km2 and 98% covered in ice.No. of tourists visiting is rising- 7413 in 1996/97 season, 46,000 in 2007-08 seasonTourists attracted by stunning scenery and wildlife- target market, most visitors from US, scientists go to perform research, tourists usually fly to New Zealand then Antarctica, then take a cruise ship for 1-2 weeks, smaller boats take them ashore at key locations for short visits, mainly to the peninsula or nearby islands, environmental impact os a tourist greater than that of a researcher.

IMPACTS uneven as tourists only want to visit picturesque and wildlife rich places ecosystems affected in Southern Ocean- pollution, overfishing- pollution both local and global Penguins and seals disturbed by humans- may leave and abandon eggs and young Ship accidents- oil spills hazard, tourist ships must discharge all waste materials away from the shore of Antarctica- dangerous waste disposal, sewage disposed in the sea.  Fuel spills kill molluscs (mussels) and fish, as well as the birds that feed on them illegal hunting and killing tourists can tranole plants, disturb wildlife and drop litter (positive) scientific research, precious rocks and minerals can be collected and soldi n other countries, people there can help preserve the landscape and wildlife. MANAGEMENT Antarctic Treaty is an international agreement that came into force in 1961 and has now been signed by 47 countries. The treaty is designed to protect and conserve the area and its plant and animal life. In April 2009, the parties involved with the Antarctic Treaty agreed to introduce new limits on tourism in Antarctica- only ships with fewer than 500 passengers are allowed to land there and a maximum of 100 passengers are allowed on shore at a time. The Internal Association of Antarctica Tour Operators also has a separate code of conduct. The code is voluntary, but most operators in the area do stick to it. There are rules on:

1) specially protected areas- off limits to tourists2) Wildlife- wildlife must not be disturbed when being observed3) Litter- nothing left behind, no smoking during shore landings4) supervision- qualified guides5) Plant life- fragile6) Waste- sewage treated biologically and other waste stored on board the ships. 

Ecotourism- The Galapagos Islands

Small chain of islands found 1,000 km from the West coast of South America. They are Ecuadorian, and are home to an incredible array of animals and plants Plants and animals have evolved in their own way isolated by the Pacific Ocean- Charles Darwin based theories on evolution here 90% of the islands are designated as National Parks. Only 20,000 permanent human residents Became the first UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1979 and also a biosphere reserve Tourism is small scale and profits go back into protecting the environment- low visitor number densities and environmental approaches to accommodation and food Tourists visit under strict rules can only visit on small ships of 10 to 16 tourists- most of which are owned by local people Tourists can only visit a limited number of places on the islands Visitors receive information on how to conserve the islands prior to their departure Pay a 25£ fee to promote conservation on the islands However, still some problems from the overuse of honeypot sites, oil spills from boats and pollution to the Islands Water Supply. Water supply also put under pressure by tourist use. Local people make a valuable living from tourism and there are few other employment opportunities available. Tourists also generate a lot of businesses in the local economy as guides, restaurants, hotels, boat owners and cleaners all benefiting. 

GEOGRAPHY HUMAN CASE STUDIES

POPULATION CHANGE

One child policy- China

During 1970's, famine unless severe changes were made quickly- change to an industrial economy at the expense of farming led to catastrophic famine from 1959-1961, 35 million deaths. 'Baby boom' followed, too fast to be sustainable. Government's methods seen as strict and cruel 1979, one child policy:

- couples must not marry until their late 20's- must have only one successful pregnancy- must be sterilized after this or abort future pregnancies- receive 5-10% salary rise for limiting to 1 child, priority housing, pension and family benefits (free education for the child)

Couples disobeying rules:

- 10% salary cut- large fine imposed (bankrupt many households)- family must pay for children's education and healthcare- 2nd children born abroad not penalized but can't become Chinese citizens 

Pressure to abort 2nd pregnancy even included pay cuts for the couple's fellow workers The Granny Police, older women of the community, were entrusted with the taskof keeping everyone in line (regular checks on couples of childbearing age and accompanying women on contraception appointments to make sure they attend China racially mixed but over 80% is of the Han race, minority groups could be unsustainable under the policy so were exempt In rural areas where boys needed to work the land, 2nd pregnancy was allowed if 1st was a girl 

CONS women forced to have abortions as late as the 9th month of pregnancy Women placed under tremendous pressure from families, workmates, Granny Police and own conscience Local officials and central government had power over people's private lives Chinese society prefers sons. Some girls placed in orphanages or allowed to die (female infanticide) in the hope of having a son 2nd time round Chinese children rep of being over indulged being only children- 'little emperors'

PROS Famine previously forecast not happened Population growth slowed down sufficiently enough for people to have enough food and jobs 400 million fewer babies born increased technology and exploitation of resources have increased standard of living for many New industries lifted millions out of poverty

CHANGES TO POLICY IN 1990'S AND 2000'S Young couples who are both only children allowed 2 children, but government officials must set an example with 1 Some agree with 1980's policy, but others choose for themselves Young couples today face problems of looking after four elderly couples, having two children will share the burden in the future Less times needed for childcare so women can focus on their careers, so achieve more Attitude to having a daughter has improved. With increasing wealth, couples able to break the rules and pay the fines and consequences of a 2nd child Policy unlikely to relax- 2008 China, 1 million more births than deaths every 5 weeks and 600m people still live on less than $2 per day Major consequence= gender imbalance- 60m more young men than women. Not all young men able to marry, presenting difficulties. 

Alternative population policy- Kerala, India

India first LEDC to launch a national family planning programme as early as 1952. Not just contraception, but social changes- south western state of Kerala with its socialist/ communist government focused on social changes to create a society encouraging smaller families. Its decrease in birth rate has been most dramatic in India. 32 million people live in Kerala, 3.4% India's population 819 people per km2, density three times the Indian average, however its growth rate is the lowest Kerala gone through demographic transition sto stage four and it has social and demographic statistics close to those in Europe and North America GDP per capita- Kerala= 2,950, India = 460 It's GDP is low compared with richer countries but high against many other Indian states and low income countries Kenya's population policy to reduce its high growth rate involved:

improving education standards and treating girls as equally as boys Providing adult literacy calssesin towns and villages Educating people to understand the benefits of smaller villages Reducing infant mortality so people no longer need to have so many children Improving child health through vaccination programmes Providing free contraception and advice Encouraging higher age of marriage Allowing maternity leave for the first 2 babies only Providing extra retirement benefits for those with smaller families Following a land reform programme

This progressive education policy has been in action since the 1960's under the socialist/ communist government Today, more girls go to uni than boys, Right to Literacy programme organises reading and writing classes in villages, and villages have free libraries Land in Kerala was redistributed so that no-one was landless. No family allowed more than 8 ha and everyone could be self sufficient

Ageing population- UK

Most wealthy and developed countries have an ageing population. In 2005, 16% of the population of the UK was over 65. By 2041, could be 25%.CAUSESincreased life expectancy and dropping birth rates, people living longer because of advance in medicine and improved living standards. Between 1980 and 2006, life expectancy rose 2.6 years for women and 6.4 years for men- currently 81.5 for women and 77.2 for men, lots of babies born in 1940's and 1960's- periods called 'baby booms'. Those born in the 1940's are retiring now, creating a 'pensioner boom', since the 1970's the number of babies born has fallen- with fewer young people in the population the proportion of older people goes up.IMPACTSmore elderly people are living in poverty- working population isnt large enough to pay for a decent pension and many people dont have other savings, even though the state pension is low the government is struggling to pay it. The taxes paid by people in work aren't enough to cover the cost of pensions and as the population ages the situation gets worse, the health service is under pressure because older people need more medical care than younger peopleMANAGEMENT- UK GOVERNMENT STRATEGIES- 1) raise the retirement age- 2046 will be 68 for everyone, people work longer so pay more tax and there are fewer claiming a pension2) encourage immigrationi of young people to the UK- 80% of immigrants from new EU countries in 2004 were 34 or under so more people paying taxes3) encourage women to have children, working family tax credits support women who go back to work after their children are born ( so more affordable to have children)4) encourage people to take out private pensions, government gives tax breaks for some types of private pension. With private pension, peopl less dependant on state pension.Too early to tell if government strategies are working. Even if they have the same effect, likely future generations will have to work longer and rely on their families to support them in old age. 

Migration in the EU- Poland to the UK

CONTEXT 1st April 2004, Poland was one of the ten nations joining the EU, 8 of these countries were A8 poor Eastern European countries EU allows free movement of labour between its member countries.  UK government expected influx of Polish people because of better lifestyle in the UK By July 2006, 447,000 people from Eastern Europe had applied to work in the UK, 62% from Poland Polish are 3rd largest ethnic minority group in the UK REASONS FOR MIGRATION:

PUSH average unemployment in Poland at 18.5% in 2005 youth unemployment of around 40% average income in Poland was $12,500 a year compared to $30,900 in the UK

PULL unemployment in UK at 5.1% established Polish communities in the UK high demand for skilled and semi-skilled labour vacancies in the UK for Oct-Dec 2007 were 607,900 UK were one of only three countries who did not restrict the number of immigrants from the A8 countries (other two Ireland and Sweden)

TYPICAL POLISH MIGRANT= skilled or semi-skilled industrial worker or tradesman, often with a young family, £150 a month in Poland, £6 an hour in UK, majority intending to stay for short periods, employed with factories as warehouse operatives, cleaning duties and farmers, many Polish taking a gap year

IMPACTS ON SOURCE COUNTRY

POSITIVE injection of foreign cash as wages are repatriated Polish economy is boosted by money being sent back from the UK Less pressure on resources Improved standards of living NEGATIVE brain drain of skilled workers seeking employment abroad Ageing population left behind loss of entrepreneurial spirit, emigrants tend to be the biggest risk-takers shortage of workers population fell, birth rate dropped as young migrated skill shortages as well as high demand for skilled labour gender imbalance

IMPACTS ON DESTINATION COUNTRY

POSITIVE they filled a skills gap as well as taking on undesirable jobs new migrants typically hard working, skilled, enthusiastic and flexible £2.5 billion contributed to the economy by Eastern European immigrants 80% of migrants between 18 & 35- NI contributions help UK cope with ageing population NEGATIVE tension in areas that have previously not yet experienced large scale immigration Increased pressures on education placed by children of immigrants 427,000 migrant workers who successfully registered to work brought with them 36,000 dependants and spouses demand for housing leading to higher rents/prices. Exploitation of workers by unscrupulous employers Additional stress on the NHS High proportion of wages returned to Poland

International migration- Senegal to Italy

International labour migration, patterns of emigration from Senegal, money sent home to support children, but those children will suffer badly without their fathers at home, houses left by emigrants lie empty and unemployment is high, there is little to attract migrants to return, people aged from their teens to their 40's leave Senegal, mostly males. Those who return often bring enough money to buy a house, the dry climate has limited Senegal's subsistence farming, funds sent home to the village of Beud Forage have helped set up water and electricity supplies. 

Changing urban environments

TOurism

population change