ISTQB 2018 Foundation Software Testing 2

Robyn Babbage
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Robyn Babbage
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Robyn Babbage
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ISTQB - Foundation Level Foundation - Certified Tester Quiz on ISTQB 2018 Foundation Software Testing 2, created by Robyn Babbage on 01/16/2019.
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Question 1

Question
In which moment of a project's life cycle should the test planning occur?
Answer
  • At the beginning. All further activities should be done according to that plan.
  • It is a continuous activity, as feedback from different test activities may impact the plans and force us to change them.
  • During the test analysis phase, because planning is an analytical activity.
  • In sequential models, planning should occur through the whole project's life cycle, while in the iterative models, planning should be generally avoided.

Question 2

Question
To overcome the pesticide paradox, we should:
Answer
  • Use test techniques to derive a finite number of test cases for a potentially infinite number of combinations of input values.
  • Start testing activities as early as possible.
  • Align the test strategy to the context.
  • Review and update tests on a regular basis.

Question 3

Question
Choose the correct sentence about defects, failures, and errors.
Answer
  • A failure is caused by one or more errors, which are caused by one or more defects.
  • Code review can reveal a failure.
  • Executing a defect in code during testing may result in actual result being equal to the expected result.
  • A root cause of every failure is one or more human errors.

Question 4

Question
Consider the following criterion: "there are no failures with high severity." What type of criterion can it be?
Answer
  • Entry criterion for the "test design" phase.
  • Entry criterion for the "test implementation" phase.
  • Exit criterion for the "test execution" phase.
  • Exit criterion for the "test completion" phase.

Question 5

Question
Traceability between test cases and risk items can allow the testers to:
Answer
  • Perform the impact analysis in terms of the effort needed to change the test cases in case a functional requirement is changed.
  • Calculate statement and decision coverage achieved by the executed tests.
  • Calculate the risk level by analysing the test results for each test case.
  • Implement effective monitoring in terms of calculating the residual risk.

Question 6

Question
Choose an example of a white-box test technique.
Answer
  • Designing tests based on the architectural design.
  • Designing tests based on the functional requirements.
  • Designing tests by generating random inputs.
  • Designing tests based on the tester's knowledge and experience.

Question 7

Question
Which type of testing cannot be planned in advance?
Answer
  • Regression testing.
  • Operational acceptance testing.
  • User acceptance testing.
  • Confirmation testing.

Question 8

Question
Which of the following is not a typical tester's task according to Foundation Level Syllabus?
Answer
  • Preparing test data.
  • Automating the tests.
  • Supporting the selection of test tools.
  • Reviewing and contributing to test plans.

Question 9

Question
A source to determine expected results to compare with the actual results of the system under test is called:
Answer
  • Comparator.
  • Test ocracle.
  • Test specification.
  • Test basis.

Question 10

Question
You are testing a Customer Relationship Management (CRM) system and you have prepared the following test cases: (See image) At the beginning, the CRM database is empty. The execution of each test lasts 5 minutes. You want to execute all three test cases, but in the shortest possible time. What is the reasonable test execution schedule in this situation?
Answer
  • TC2, TC3, TC1
  • TC2, TC2, TC3, TC1
  • TC2, TC2, TC1, TC2, TC3
  • TC2, TC1, TC3

Question 11

Question
Your project follows a V-model as the life cycle model. It is currently in the "Requirements" phase. What kind of test activities can you perform at this phase?
Answer
  • No test activity is allowed, as V-model is a sequential process. We need to wait till the "Testing" phase.
  • Design of the integration tests.
  • Design of the acceptance tests.
  • Code review.

Question 12

Question
Figure 7.1 presents the state machine for a part of a CRM (Customer Relationship Management) system. The operator is able to print reports, create records for new customers, and modify records for already existing customers. What is the number of transitions (0-switches) in this state machine and what is the minimal number of test cases that achieve 0-switch coverage? By a test case, we understand a sequence of events starting from the initial state (S1).
Answer
  • 7 0-switches; 1 test case
  • 6 0-switches; 2 test cases
  • 5 0-switches; 2 test cases
  • 6 0-switches; 1 test cases

Question 13

Question
You are working as a tester in a project in which the following documents are available: - Requirements specification - 50 automated test scripts - Test Plan Which of these documents cannot be examined during the review and why?
Answer
  • 50 automated test scripts, because it is impractical to perform a manual review for such a big number of the work products.
  • Test plan, because it is a high level document that cannot be modified by testers.
  • Requirement specification, because it is a test basis, which may play the role of a test oracle.
  • All these documents can be subject to a review.

Question 14

Question
A word processor can be classified as which type of tool, assuming the classification is done according to the testing activities the tools support?
Answer
  • Test specification tool.
  • Test execution tool.
  • Test monitoring tool.
  • A word processor cannot be classified this way, as this is not a test tool.

Question 15

Question
You are testing the automatic gate controller. The following use case presents the situation of a standard car passing through the gate. You want to cover this test case, according to the standard use case coverage proposed by the Foundation Level Syllabus. Which of the following test cases should NOT be included in the test suite?
Answer
  • Step 1, Step 2 with exception E1, Step 5, Step 6 with exception E2.
  • Step 1, Step 2, Step 3, Step 4, Step 5, Step 6 with exception E2.
  • Step 1, Step 2 with exception E1, Step 5, Step 6, Step 7.
  • Step 1, Step 2, Step 3, Step 4, Step 5, Step 6, Step 7.

Question 16

Question
Consider the variable DayOfWeek, whose domain is {Mon, Tue, Wed, Thu, Fri, Sat, Sun}. Which of the following is not a correct equivalence partitioning of this domain, no matter what error hypothesis is considered by a tester? Assume that each class is denoted by the curly brackets {...}.
Answer
  • {Mon}, {Tue}, {Wed}, {Thu}, {Fri}, {Sat}, {Sun}
  • {Mon, Tues, Wed, Thu, Fri, Sat, Sun}
  • {Mon, Tue, Wed}, {Mon, Thu, Fri}, {Tue, Sat, Sun}
  • {Mon, Tue, Sat}, {Sun, Thu}, {Wed, Fri}

Question 17

Question
What is the direct consequence of communicating defects by a tester to other team members in an unconstructive way?
Answer
  • Decreasing the team effectiveness.
  • Conflict in the team.
  • Increasing the team effectiveness.
  • Losing a sense of responsibility for quality.

Question 18

Question
Who uses the test charters?
Answer
  • Developer
  • Client
  • User
  • Tester

Question 19

Question
You are asked to perform a review of the user interface prototype for the web-based e-banking application. The interface will be used by the bank clients only. As the application will be used by many different clients, your team has defined the so-called personas that represent different, but typical client types: - A teenager with no income except from the pocket money, experienced with the web technologies - A businessman with high salary and many different accounts, moderately experienced with the wen technologies. - An old women that has sight problems, inexperienced in the web technologies. Your team will conduct the review of the interface from the point of view of these customer types. Which review technique will be the most useful in this case?
Answer
  • Role-based review
  • Perspective-based review
  • Checklist-based review
  • Scenarios and dry runs

Question 20

Question
Which of the following is an organisational success factor for reviews?
Answer
  • A culture of learning and process improvement is promoted.
  • Participants have adequate time to prepare.
  • The review is conducted in an atmosphere of trust.
  • Defects found are acknowledged, appreciated, and handled objectively.

Question 21

Question
The role of the impact analysis is to:
Answer
  • Estimate the coverage of a given test suite in order to predict its effectiveness.
  • Calculate the risk level using the information about its likelihood and impact.
  • Assess the impact of a risk related to a given test case during the test analysis phase.
  • Identify the possible side effects of a planned or actual change.

Question 22

Question
Structural testing can be performed:
Answer
  • Only by developers, because developers know and have access to the code they write.
  • Only by testers, because structural testing is a testing, not developing activity.
  • Only by clients, because they define the structure of the software that is going to be implemented, so only they can verify its correctness.
  • By anyone, since it can be applied to all test levels: developers can perform component and integration white-box testing, testers-white box system testing and clients - white box acceptance testing.

Question 23

Question
Which of the following test techniques is an extension of the equivalence partitioning?
Answer
  • Exploratory testing
  • Boundary value analysis
  • Decision table testing
  • Equivalence classes testing

Question 24

Question
A user defines her password according to several rules. The rules are: - The password must have at least six characters. - The password must contain at least one numerical character (0, 1, ..., 9). - The password must contain at least one capital letter. Assume that each rule defines a separate equivalence partitioning on the set of all strings. Each rule defines one valid and one invalid equivalence class. Each test case can cover only one invalid equivalence class. Which set of input values in the smallest set that achieves the equivalence partitioning coverage?
Answer
  • ABC123, AB1, ABCDEF, 123456
  • Abc1234, abcdef, 123, ABC
  • Abc1234, Abc, ab1, AB1
  • Abc12, Abc123, Ab1, ab1234, abc

Question 25

Question
The RiskEvaluator application assesses the risk of admitting a loan for a customer. It makes the decision upon four conditions, chosen by a client from the drop-down lists. The conditions are: * age - possible answers: - under 18 - between 18 and 35 - between 36 and 65 - over 65 * education - possible answers: - elementary or high school - undergraduate - graduate * place of living - possible answers: - city - village If a client selects age "under 18", the field "education" is automatically filled with "elementary or high school" and the client is not able to change this value. The output can be one of the following: * Low risk * Medium risk * High risk How many columns will have the decision table for this problem assuming that it contains only the feasible combinations of conditions?
Answer
  • 22
  • 24
  • 7
  • 20

Question 26

Question
Which of the following is an example of a product risk?
Answer
  • Good performance
  • Poor reliability
  • Test environment not ready on time
  • Low quality of the requirements

Question 27

Question
Your team follows the sequential model with three phases: requirements, design, code, and testing. Your team uses the following approach to estimate the number of defects detected in the testing phase. Input: dREQ = number of defects found in the requirement phase dDES = number of defects found in the design phase dCOD = number of defects found in the coding phase Output: dTES = estimated number of defects that escaped to the testing phase E = estimated effort (in man-hours) needed to fix the defects found in the testing phase Estimations: dTES = 0.2 . dCOD + 0.1 . dDES + 0.06 . dREQ The constants in the formulas come from the previous experience of your team in the similar projects. The approach described above is an example of what test estimation technique?
Answer
  • Expert-based approach, because it utilises the team's knowledge about the previous projects.
  • Risk-based approach, because it takes into account a certain phase-containment parameters, expresses in the constants used in the formulas.
  • Metric-based approach, because it uses a statistical modeling involving metrics.
  • Methodical approach, because it uses some predefined set of test conditions.

Question 28

Question
Which of the following is an example of how product risk analysis may influence the thoroughness and scope of testing?
Answer
  • From the risk analysis, it follows that there may be very serious delays when the potential tool vendor fails with the tool delivery, so the team decides to perform a thorough and detailed tool selection process.
  • The team analysed all the identified risks and prepared a contingency plan for the high level risks.
  • The team performed a detailed functional testing, according to the results of the risk analysis phase.
  • 70% of the identified high level risks are related to security issues, so the team decides to outsource the security testing to professional penetration testers.

Question 29

Question
Analysing defects in order to propose preventive actions so that this defect's reoccurrence can be avoided is a process that is called:
Answer
  • Root cause analysis
  • Debugging
  • Review
  • Dynamic testing

Question 30

Question
What should be taken into account when we plan to use a keyword-driven approach?
Answer
  • The keyword-driven tool needs to interface with other tools, or spreadsheets in order to produce useful information in a format that fits the needs of the organisation.
  • In order to introduce a keyword-driven approach we need to have a well-defined inspection process.
  • In order to introduce a keyword-driven approach, we need to have a technical expertise in scripting language.
  • We have to transform our SDLC model to the V-model.

Question 31

Question
You are preparing to perform the acceptance testing of an invoice management system. Which of the following is the best test basis for this task?
Answer
  • Architectural design of the application at system level
  • Documentation about communication interfaces of the application
  • Legal regulations describing how invoices should be constructed and processed
  • Source code of the application

Question 32

Question
Why is it a good reason to collect test metrics?
Answer
  • They help us in defining the test process.
  • They help us in monitoring and reporting test activities.
  • They can be collected in an automatic way.
  • They improve communication between testers and other team members.

Question 33

Question
Evaluating testability of the test basis and test items takes place during which phase of the testing process.
Answer
  • Test design
  • Test planning, monitoring, and control
  • Test analysis
  • Test implementation

Question 34

Question
You need to decide which version of the architectural design will be used in your project. Which type of review would be the most appropriate for discussing this issue?
Answer
  • Informal review
  • Walkthrough
  • Technical review
  • Inspection

Question 35

Question
You test one of the on-line banking system functions that verifies the correctness of the PIN for a credit card. A valid PIN: *Must contain at least 4 and at most 6 digits *Must contain at least 2 different digits You want to apply a 2-point boundary value analysis for checking that the system follows the two above rules. A test case consists of a PIN number. Which set of test cases covers all the boundary values that you need to test?
Answer
  • 123, 1234,123456, 1234567
  • 949, 0011, 33333, 123123, 6667778
  • 123, 1111, 123456, 1234567
  • 777, 8888, 999999, 4444444

Question 36

Question
Which action is done by a moderator during the "review initiation" step of a formal review?
Answer
  • Sending an e-mail to the participants explaining what is the goal of the review, with an attachment of a document to be reviewed
  • Defining the review criteria and checking entry criteria
  • Allocating roles
  • Preparing for the review meeting by reviewing the documents

Question 37

Question
A tester wrote the following defect report regarding the financial application, which grants loans up to $10,000. What is wrong with this defect report?
Answer
  • Expected result is wrong in one step
  • Expected result is missing in one step
  • Defect status is missing
  • Nothing is wrong with this report

Question 38

Question
Suppose you have three test cases: * Test 1 gives you 20% decision coverage. * Test 2 gives you 30% decision coverage. * Test 3 gives you 30% decision coverage. What is the possible decision coverage that can be achieved by a test suite consisted only of these three tests?
Answer
  • 82%
  • 50%
  • 25%
  • 1.8%

Question 39

Question
What can we be sure about, if we achieved 100 statement coverage of a given code?
Answer
  • That our tests executed all executable statements in the code
  • That we tested any possible behaviour of the code
  • That our tests achieved 100% decision coverage as well
  • That there are no decision points in the code

Question 40

Question
Choose a good example of why testing is necessary.
Answer
  • It allows software development process to be aligned with the testing process
  • It fixes defects detected in software
  • It allows to detect and prevent from contradictions in the requirements
  • It allows to manage better the testing process
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