test review

Andy Martinez
Quiz by Andy Martinez, updated more than 1 year ago
Andy Martinez
Created by Andy Martinez about 2 years ago
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test

Resource summary

Question 1

Question
Short-term adaptation to environmental stress is
Answer
  • acclimation
  • acclimatization
  • thermoregulation
  • adaptations

Question 2

Question
85 °F is equal to °C
Answer
  • 47.2
  • 29.4
  • 27.5
  • 65

Question 3

Question
Transfer of heat from a solid object to a solid object is
Answer
  • convection
  • evaporation
  • conduction
  • radiation

Question 4

Question
Transfer of heat from air or water currents is
Answer
  • convection
  • evaporation
  • conduction
  • radiation

Question 5

Question
What is the primary method for discharging the resting body’s heat?
Answer
  • evaporation
  • conduction
  • radiation

Question 6

Question
What is the primary method for discharging the resting body’s heat
Answer
  • evaporation
  • conduction
  • radiation

Question 7

Question
The primary avenue of heat loss during exercise is
Answer
  • convection
  • evaporation
  • conduction
  • radiation

Question 8

Question
Which of the following are considered avenues of dry heat exchange?
Answer
  • convection
  • conduction
  • radiation
  • All of these are correct

Question 9

Question
Wind increases heat loss from the skin primarily by
Answer
  • convection
  • radiation
  • sweating
  • All of these are correct.

Question 10

Question
Which of the following is incorrect?
Answer
  • Insulation limits dry heat exchange.
  • Clothing adds resistance to evaporative cooling
  • Cooling of the skin does occur as sweat evaporates from wet clothing surfaces, and this cooling power is greater than evaporation directly from the skin to the air.
  • Sweat must evaporate in order for cooling to occur

Question 11

Question
Internal body temperature at rest is regulated at approximately
Answer
  • 37 ºC
  • 40 ºC
  • 98.6 ºC
  • 32 ºC

Question 12

Question
Thermoreceptors detect changes in temperature and relay this information to your body’s thermostat located
Answer
  • in the preoptic-anterior hypothalamus
  • in blood
  • in the posterior hypothalamus

Question 13

Question
The receptors that monitor temperature of blood as it circulates through the body are
Answer
  • thermoreceptors
  • central receptors
  • peripheral receptors

Question 14

Question
Skin vasoconstriction results primarily from
Answer
  • SNS release of the neurotransmitter norepinephrine
  • sympathetic cholinergic release of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine
  • the hormonal secretion of epinephrine
  • None of these is correct

Question 15

Question
The primary neurotransmitter involved in activating the sweat glands is
Answer
  • norepinephrine
  • epinephrine
  • acetylcholine
  • None of these is correct.

Question 16

Question
Metabolic heat production can be increased by the actions of the hormone(s), such as
Answer
  • thyroxine
  • epinephrine
  • norepinephrine
  • All of these are correct.

Question 17

Question
The critical temperature theory states that
Answer
  • working muscle blood flow is well maintained even at very high core temperatures unless significant dehydration occurs
  • . regardless of the rate at which core temperature increases, the brain will send signals to stop exercise when some critical temperature is reached, usually between 40 and 41 °C
  • heat production is beneficial when you exercise in a cold environment because it helps maintain normal body temperature

Question 18

Question
Mineral and fluid loss in sweat during exercise in the heat stimulates increased release of ____________________________, thus reducing fluid and mineral loss in the urine.
Answer
  • epinephrine and norepinephrine
  • aldosterone and ADH
  • insulin and cortisol

Question 19

Question
Which hormone is responsible for maintaining appropriate sodium levels?
Answer
  • ADH
  • thyroxine
  • aldosterone

Question 20

Question
Which hormone is responsible for maintaining fluid balance?
Answer
  • ADH
  • thyroxine
  • cortisol

Question 21

Question
Which of the following provides a single temperature reading to estimate the cooling capacity of the surrounding environment
Answer
  • WBGT index
  • heat index

Question 22

Question
The wet bulb temperature in the WBGT index
Answer
  • indicates the effect of sweat evaporating from the skin
  • is an indication of the conductive heat loss potential

Question 23

Question
Which of the following is not a symptom of exercise and thermal dehydration?
Answer
  • decreased heart rate
  • decreased work rate
  • increased body temperature

Question 24

Question
Which of the following are adaptations that occur with heat acclimation?
Answer
  • decreased core temperature
  • increased heart rate
  • decreased plasma volume
  • decreased stroke volume

Question 25

Question
Which is the correct order by which our bodies avoid excessive heat loss?
Answer
  • shivering, nonshivering thermogenesis, peripheral vasoconstriction
  • . nonshivering thermogenesis, shivering, peripheral vasoconstriction
  • peripheral vasoconstriction, nonshivering thermogenesis, and shivering
  • shivering, peripheral vasoconstriction, nonshivering thermogenesis

Question 26

Question
Windchill
Answer
  • is an index based on the cooling effect of wind, or the cooling power of the environment
  • represents the temperature of the wind
  • represents the temperature of the air
  • All of these are correct.

Question 27

Question
Which of the following is incorrect?
Answer
  • Exposure to cold markedly increases epinephrine and norepinephrine.
  • FFA levels increase substantially more during prolonged exercise in cold conditions.
  • Cold exposure triggers vasoconstriction in the vessels.
  • Hypothermia can occur when water temperature is well above freezing.

Question 28

Question
Sitting in a hot sauna can adequately prepare the individual for physical exertion in the heat.
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 29

Question
Central thermoreceptors are far more sensitive to temperature change than peripheral receptors
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 30

Question
Which of the following statements is incorrect?
Answer
  • . Strength gains over 4 weeks to 2 years of training vary by training status, and the greatest strength increases are observed in elite athletes
  • Strength gains between men and women are similar when expressed as a percentage of initial strength.
  • Strength gains between children and adults are similar when expressed as a percentage of initial strength.
  • Strength gains when reported as absolute weight are higher in men than in women.

Question 31

Question
Which of the following is incorrect?
Answer
  • Rate coding may be increased with resistance training.
  • Rapid movement or ballistic-type training appears to be effective in stimulating increases in rate coding.
  • A reduction in coactivation of agonists and antagonists is one way in which neural factors may contribute to strength gains achieved with resistance training.
  • Resistance training in the elderly (>70 years of age) results in increases in muscle strength but not muscle mass.

Question 32

Question
The muscle fiber hypertrophy that occurs with chronic resistance training appears to result from
Answer
  • a net increase in glycogen storage in the muscle fibers
  • a net increase in muscle protein synthesis
  • an increase in the water content of the muscle fibers
  • increased testosterone secretion

Question 33

Question
Evidence from recent research indicates that a carbohydrate and protein supplement, taken immediately after a resistance training bout, can
Answer
  • prevent muscle cramps
  • prevent delayed-onset muscle soreness (DOMS)
  • reduce the rate of protein degradation in muscle, resulting in a more positive nitrogen balance
  • reduce the number of exercise sets needed to achieve a given level of strength improvement

Question 34

Question
Which of the following is a true statement regarding hypertrophy of whole muscle in response to resistance training?
Answer
  • Whole-muscle hypertrophy in humans has been shown to result solely from muscle fiber hypertrophy.
  • Some research has suggested that muscle fiber hyperplasia may contribute to whole-muscle hypertrophy in humans.
  • Increases in muscle size do not occur in nonhumans in response to resistance exercise.

Question 35

Question
Most research evidence indicates that training-induced whole-muscle hypertrophy in humans
Answer
  • results mainly from increases in the number of muscle fibers
  • results mainly from increases in the size of individual muscle fibers

Question 36

Question
Which of the following is incorrect concerning current theory on fiber splitting in humans?
Answer
  • Individual muscle fibers have the capacity to divide and split into two daughter cells, each of which can then develop into a functional muscle fiber.
  • Muscle injury results from intense training, particularly concentric-action training.
  • Satellite cells are typically activated by muscle stretching and injury.

Question 37

Question
When muscle atrophies, the cross-sectional area and several studies have shown this effect to be greater in type fibers.
Answer
  • increases; IIa
  • decreases; I
  • decreases; IIa
  • increases; I

Question 38

Question
Which of the following is true concerning the effects of resistance training on muscular strength and size?
Answer
  • Men and women participating in comparable strength training programs achieve similar strength gains
  • Children cannot achieve meaningful strength improvements through resistance training.

Question 39

Question
Which of the following is incorrect concerning fiber type conversion?
Answer
  • a. Cross-innervation studies demonstrated interconversion between type I and type II fibers.
  • b. Chronic, low-frequency nerve stimulation transforms type II motor units into type I motor units.
  • c. Transition of type IIx fibers to type IIa fibers occurs with resistance training.
  • A combination of high-intensity resistance training and short-interval speed work can lead to a conversion of type I to type IIa fibers.
  • There are no incorrect responses.

Question 40

Question
The major objective of exercise training is to
Answer
  • maintain an ideal body weight
  • cause physiological adaptations specific to the type of training
  • increase endurance capacity

Question 41

Question
Which of the following is incorrect?
Answer
  • Aerobic training improves central and peripheral blood flow.
  • V\od\O2max may be defined by the Fick equation.
  • V\od\O2max = Q\od\max divided by a-vO2 difference.

Question 42

Question
Which of the following is the best objective laboratory measure of aerobic power, or cardiorespiratory endurance?
Answer
  • maximal oxygen uptake
  • lactate threshold
  • maximal expiratory ventilation

Question 43

Question
Submaximal endurance capacity
Answer
  • a. is measured with a V\od\O2max test
  • b. is more closely related to competitive endurance performance than is maximal endurance capacity
  • c. is probably determined by both a person's V\od\O2 and his or her lactate threshold
  • a and b
  • b and c

Question 44

Question
The increase in heart muscle mass with resistance training is due to
Answer
  • repeated exposure to the decreased afterload
  • repeated exposure to the increased afterload
  • repeated exposure to increased plasma volume

Question 45

Question
Cardiovascular adaptations that occur with resistance training are primarily due to a. pressure changes that occur with resistance training
Answer
  • pressure changes that occur with resistance training
  • the pressor response
  • volume changes
  • None of these is correct.

Question 46

Question
Of the following factors, which is considered the most important contributor to the improvement in stroke volume with endurance training?
Answer
  • increased blood volume
  • increased cardiac contractility
  • decreased arterial blood pressure

Question 47

Question
Increased contractile force of the heart causes
Answer
  • an increase in end-systolic volume
  • a decrease in end-systolic volume
  • no change in end-systolic volume

Question 48

Question
What is a possible reason for lower maximal heart rates observed in endurance-trained athletes?
Answer
  • Slower heart rates increase ventricular filling time.
  • Slower heart rate increases afterload.

Question 49

Question
An increase in mechanical efficiency is a possible explanation for
Answer
  • a lower oxygen consumption at a given submaximal exercise workload after training
  • a higher oxygen consumption rate at a given submaximal exercise work load after training

Question 50

Question
Hypoxia is best defined as
Answer
  • oxygen deficiency
  • difficulty breathing

Question 51

Question
Barometric pressure on Earth
Answer
  • remains constant
  • does not vary according to the time of year
  • varies slightly with changes in climatic conditions

Question 52

Question
In response to exposure to high altitude,
Answer
  • pulmonary ventilation decreases
  • chemoreceptors are stimulated by high PCO2 and therefore increase pulmonary ventilation
  • pulmonary ventilation is increased primarily by increases in tidal volume
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