General IBS Quiz

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Quiz by . ., updated more than 1 year ago
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Created by . . about 6 years ago
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Description

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Resource summary

Question 1

Question
What is the enzyme that catalyses the reversible reaction that converts Glucose-6-Phosphate to Fructose-6-Phosphate?
Answer
  • Phosphofructokinase
  • Phosphoglucose isomerase
  • Aldolase
  • Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate

Question 2

Question
What is the function of exonuclease?
Answer
  • Removal of RNA primers
  • Removal of DNA primers
  • Stitching together of Okazaki fragments
  • Joining adjacent nucleotides together

Question 3

Question
What direction does the coding strand run in?
Answer
  • 5' to 3'
  • 3' to 5'

Question 4

Question
What direction does the template strand run in?
Answer
  • 3' to 5'
  • 5' to 3'

Question 5

Question
What is the function of Gyrase?
Answer
  • Prevent DNA supercoiling
  • Add DNA sequence repeats to the 3' end of DNA strands at the end of chromosomes
  • Unwind the DNA strand
  • Remove RNA primers

Question 6

Question
RNA contains the bases Adenine, Thymine, Cytosine and Guanine.
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 7

Question
snRNA forms part of a complex with proteins (snRNPs) which aid in the formation of the spliceosome that is involved in pre-mRNA splicing.
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 8

Question
What post-transcriptional modifications are added to mRNA?
Answer
  • 5' methyl-guanosine cap
  • 3' poly A tail
  • 5' methyl-adenosine tail
  • 3' mono A tail

Question 9

Question
What codon signals the start of translation of a protein?
Answer
  • AUG
  • ATG
  • TAC
  • UAA

Question 10

Question
Why is the triplet code known as degenerate?
Answer
  • More than one codon codes for one amino acid
  • Codons can become mutated
  • Codons are read three bases at a time

Question 11

Question
Where does DNA replication, transcription and splicing occur?
Answer
  • Cytoplasm
  • Nucleus
  • Mitochondria
  • Extracellular Matrix

Question 12

Question
An open reading frame is a section of RNA with a small number of codons that results in a truncated, non-functional protein.
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 13

Question
What is the enzyme responsible for charging tRNA with amino acids?
Answer
  • Amino-acyl tRNA synthetase
  • Peptidyl Transferase
  • Signal Peptidase
  • Phosphotransferase

Question 14

Question
Most mutations are only detrimental to a protein if they occur in the exons; the coding regions of DNA.
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 15

Question
Phospholipids are amphipathic molecules, what does this mean?
Answer
  • They possess two properties in a single structure
  • They can form bilayer sheets
  • They are highly hydrophobic molecules
  • They can form micelle structures

Question 16

Question
Phase transition occurs at a lower temperature in plasma membranes that have shorter, more unsaturated fatty acid tails.
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 17

Question
Where does phospholipid synthesis occur?
Answer
  • Outer cytosolic leaflet of the endoplasmic reticulum
  • Outer cytosolic leaflet of the golgi apparatus
  • Inner cytosolic leaflet of the golgi apparatus
  • Inner cytosolic leaflet of the endoplasmic reticulum

Question 18

Question
What is the function of scramblase in the formation of new plasma membrane?
Answer
  • Catalysing the 'flip-flop' mechanism that distributes phospholipids between the outer cytosolic and inner cytosolic portions of the plasma membrane
  • Catalysing the fusion of the newly synthesised portion of the plasma membrane to the existing plasma membrane
  • Catalysing vesicle release from the endoplasmic reticulum after the newly synthesised portion of the plasma membrane is produced

Question 19

Question
What are the three subtypes of phospholipid?
Answer
  • Phosphotidylcholine
  • Phosphotidylethanolamine
  • Phosphotidylserine
  • Phosphotidylvaline
  • Phosphotidylethylamine
  • Phosphotidyladenosine

Question 20

Question
The function of the enzyme Flippase is to aid fusion of the newly synthesised plasma membrane with the current plasma membrane.
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 21

Question
Glycosylation is the process by which a triglyceride side chain is added to a protein, such as when glycoproteins are made in the endoplasmic reticulum.
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 22

Question
Transmembrane proteins contain which of the following components that enable them to become embedded in membranes?
Answer
  • Signal sequence
  • Stop-transfer sequence
  • Embed sequence
  • Translocate sequence

Question 23

Question
Recognition of the stop-transfer sequence in a transmembrane protein causes what to happen?
Answer
  • The transmembrane protein to travel across the membrane
  • The transmembrane protein to become embedded in the membrane
  • The transmembrane protein to be removed by enzymatic digestion

Question 24

Question
Steroid and Thyroid hormones can travel across the plasma membrane and the nuclear membrane due to what property?
Answer
  • Lipophilic
  • Hydrophilic

Question 25

Question
Lipophilic hormones such as Testosterone (steroid hormone) can only exhibit its function if :
Answer
  • A special transporter protein that enables testosterone transport across the membrane is present
  • The receptor that testosterone binds to in order to act as a transcriptional factor is not faulty
  • The enzyme that catalyses testosterone transport is not denatured

Question 26

Question
Due to adrenaline's lipophobic nature, how can it cause intracellular effects?
Answer
  • It acts on a receptor on the external cell surface, causing the alpha sub-unit of the heterotrimeric complex to activate and go on to activate adenylyl cyclase. This enzyme produces cAMP that participates in further cascade reactions in order to produce adrenalines required effect - glucose release.
  • A special accomodating channel protein (AACT) allows adrenaline and other catecholamines to be transported across lipophilic membranes and produce their effects intracellularly, without altering osmolarity.

Question 27

Question
Wnt is another lipophobic hormone. It activates the destruction complex which destroys beta-catenin and then allows activation of transcriptional factors to promote transcription.
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 28

Question
How many layers does pseudostratified epithelium contain?
Answer
  • 1
  • 2
  • 3

Question 29

Question
What is the appearance of stratified columnar epithelium?
Answer
  • One layer thick
  • Multiple layers thick
  • Equally wide and long, cuboidal in shape
  • Long, thin, column arrangement in shape

Question 30

Question
What is the barrier and fence function?
Answer
  • The prevention of paracellular movement of molecules due to tight junctions between cells
  • The prevent of diffusion of molecules across the plasma membrane, without a facilitating channel protein
  • The way in which lateral surface modules (such as desmosomes) anchor adjacent cells together

Question 31

Question
Adherens junctions contain actin filaments.
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 32

Question
Desomosomes contain tubulin microtubules.
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 33

Question
Collagen formation occurs in what order?
Answer
  • Protocollagen -> Tropocollagen -> Collagen fibre assembly
  • Tropocollagen -> Protocollagen -> Collagen fibre assembly
  • Collagen fibre assembly -> Tropocollagen -> Protocollagen
  • Collagen fibre assembly -> Protocollagen -> Tropocollagen

Question 34

Question
Intermediate filaments are cell specific.
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 35

Question
What are the layers of the epidermis in descending order?
Answer
  • Stratum Corneum -> Granular layer -> Spinus layer -> Basal layer
  • Granular layer -> Spinus layer -> Basal layer -> Stratum Corneum
  • Spinus layer -> Basal layer -> Granular layer -> Stratum Corneum
  • Granular layer -> Stratum Corneum -> Basal layer -> Spinus layer

Question 36

Question
Where is more K5/K14 found?
Answer
  • Apical layer
  • Basal layer

Question 37

Question
Where is more K1/K10 found?
Answer
  • Apical layer
  • Basal layer

Question 38

Question
Keratin genes are differentially expressed in the different epidermal layers, producing dominant subtypes in different epidermal layers
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 39

Question
What are the components of a desmosome?
Answer
  • Desmogleins
  • Desmocollins
  • Plakoglobin
  • Plakophilin
  • Plakotrypsin
  • Desmoglobulin
  • Desmochitin

Question 40

Question
What is a hemidesmosome?
Answer
  • A basal cell-cell adhesion module that can interact with the ECM of the basement membrane
  • A lateral cell-cell adhesion module that permits electrical communication between cells
  • A lateral cell-cell adhesion module that anchors adjacent cells together

Question 41

Question
Pemphigus Foliaceus affects what epidermal layer?
Answer
  • Upper
  • Lower

Question 42

Question
Epidermolysis bullosa affects what cell-cell adhesion module?
Answer
  • Desmosomes
  • Hemi-desmosomes
  • Tight junctions
  • Adherens junctions

Question 43

Question
What are types of epidermolysis bullosa?
Answer
  • EB Simplex
  • EB Junctional
  • EB Dystrophic
  • EB Vulgaris
  • EB Foliaceus
  • EB Desmosomal

Question 44

Question
Why is Tubulin known as "dynamically unstable"?
Answer
  • It is continually assembled and disassembled at its plus end
  • It cannot be stored in cells as it is unstable
  • Tubulin is composed of more than one sub-units

Question 45

Question
Actin's structure shows a twisting pattern due to the + and - charges on G-actin during polymerisation
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 46

Question
Mutations in intermediate filaments are more detrimental to cells than mutations in actin filaments or tubulin microtubules
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 47

Question
What is meant by actin cycling?
Answer
  • The disassembly of actin filaments, diffusion and subsequent reassembly close to a stimulus site
  • The way actin polymerises into F-actin

Question 48

Question
Which of the following protein translocations into organelles are unidirectional?
Answer
  • Nucleus translocation
  • Mitochondria translocation
  • Peroxisomal translocation

Question 49

Question
Mutations in peroxisomes are not always fatal because peroxisomes are cell specific.
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 50

Question
Which of the following are ER modifications of proteins?
Answer
  • N-linked glycosylation
  • Completion of translation
  • Folding of proteins
  • Formation of disulphide bonds
  • Modification of N-linked oligosaccharide side chains
  • Oxygen-linked glycosylation
  • Mannose-6-phosphate modification
  • Sorting to final destinations

Question 51

Question
Which of the following are Golgi modifications of proteins?
Answer
  • Nitrogen-linked glycosylation
  • Completion of translation
  • Folding of proteins
  • Formation of disulphide bonds
  • Modification of N-linked oligosaccharide side chains
  • Oxygen-linked glycosylation
  • Mannose-6-phosphate modification
  • Sorting to final destinations

Question 52

Question
What is direct sorting in the golgi network?
Answer
  • Vesicles travelling straight to the membrane from the golgi apparatus
  • Vesicles travelling from the golgi to the wrong domain and then being retrieved by early endosomes and being sent to the correct domain such as the membrane

Question 53

Question
What is indirect sorting in the golgi network?
Answer
  • Vesicles travelling from the golgi to the wrong domain and then being retrieved by early endosomes and being sent to the correct domain such as the membrane
  • Vesicles travelling straight to the membrane from the golgi apparatus
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