NMS Semester 2 Set 1 Quiz - The brain, hearing, taste and olfaction.

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Question 1

Question
What is a function of the frontal lobe?
Answer
  • Personality
  • Visual processing
  • Sensory analysis
  • Memory

Question 2

Question
What is the function of the occipital lobe?
Answer
  • Personality
  • Visual processing
  • Memory
  • Sensory analysis

Question 3

Question
What is the function of the temporal lobe?
Answer
  • Personality
  • Memory
  • Visual processing
  • Sensory analysis

Question 4

Question
What is the function of the parietal lobe?
Answer
  • Sensory analysis
  • Memory
  • Visual processing
  • Personality

Question 5

Question
What is the function of the pyramidal decussation?
Answer
  • It supplies motor fibres to the rest of the body
  • It connects the cerebellum to the rest of the CNS
  • It is part of the ventricular system that produces CSF

Question 6

Question
The cerebellar penduncles are the linkage between the cerebellum and the rest of the CNS
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 7

Question
What structures are supplied by the anterior cerebral artery?
Answer
  • Frontal lobe
  • Parietal lobe
  • Temporal lobe
  • Occipital lobe

Question 8

Question
What structures are supplied by the middle cerebral artery?
Answer
  • Frontal lobe
  • Parietal lobe
  • Occipital lobe
  • Temporal lobe

Question 9

Question
What structures are supplied by the posterior cerebral artery?
Answer
  • Frontal lobe
  • Parietal lobe
  • Occipital lobe
  • Temporal lobe

Question 10

Question
99.9% of sound would be lost without the middle ear ossicles that convert air to fluid energy.
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 11

Question
Three tiny muscles attach to the middle ear ossicles to dampen the sound produced by your own body.
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 12

Question
The high surface area of the tympanic membrane gives it high sensitivity so small sounds can be detected.
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 13

Question
What is the correct process in which sound is perceived?
Answer
  • Conduction of soundwave from oval window -> Moves back and dissipates and wobbles the basilar membrane located in the cochlear -> deflects stereocilia that have mechanically gated K+ channels at the tip -> opens them and this causes depolarisation -> Ca2+ entry due to VG Ca2+ opening upon depolarisation -> causes NT release and action potential in sensory neuron -> stereocilia move back to original place after sound has dissipated.
  • Conduction of soundwave from oval window -> Moves back and dissipates and wobbles the basilar membrane located in the cochlear -> deflects stereocilia that have mechanically gated K+ channels at the tip -> opens them and this causes repolarisation -> Ca2+ entry due to VG Ca2+ opening upon repolarisation -> causes NT release and action potential in sensory neuron -> stereocilia move back to original place after sound has dissipated.
  • Conduction of soundwave from oral window -> Moves back and dissipates and wobbles the basilar membrane located in the cochlear -> deflects stereocilia that have mechanically gated K+ channels at the tip -> opens them and this causes depolarisation -> Ca2+ entry due to VG Ca2+ opening upon depolarisation -> causes NT release and action potential in sensory neuron -> stereocilia move back to original place after sound has dissipated.

Question 14

Question
Which area of the cochlea/basilar membrane are receptive to high and low frequency sounds?

Question 15

Question
Why are lower frequency sounds detected further along the length of the cochlea?
Answer
  • The basilar membrane is narrow and stiff at the base and wide and floppy at the apex and therefore low energy sounds wobble the apex which is picked up by the brain as a low frequency sound.
  • The basilar membrane is wide and floppy at the base and narrow and stiff at the apex and therefore high energy sounds such as those that are low frequency wobble the apex which is picked up by the brain as a low frequency sound.
  • Low frequency sounds have higher energy and travel further along the basilar membrane. This causes deflection of the stereocilia further along the length of the cochlea and therefore detection of low frequency sounds.

Question 16

Question
Are inner hair cells myelinated or unmyelinated? What is the benefit of this?
Answer
  • Myelinated
  • Unmyelinated
  • Conduction to the brain is faster
  • Conduction to the brain is slowed and has enough time to process the information

Question 17

Question
What is the route of transmission of hearing to the brain?
Answer
  • Spiral ganglion -> ventral cochlear nucleus (the "splitter") -> inferior colliculus -> medial geniculate nucleus -> Auditory cortex
  • Spiral ganglion -> ventral cochlear nucleus (the "splitter") -> inferior colliculus -> medial geniculate nucleus -> Visual cortex
  • Spiral ganglion -> ventral cochlear nucleus (the "splitter") -> inferior colliculus -> lateral geniculate nucleus -> Auditory cortex

Question 18

Question
How can the brain cause descending influence to dampen hearing?
Answer
  • Attenuation reflex (two tiny muscles)
  • Alter sensitivity of outer hair cells
  • Thicken the tympanic membrane
  • Contract the cochlear to reduce basilar membrane wobble

Question 19

Question
What is conductive deafness?
Answer
  • Problem with the ossicles of the middle ear
  • Damaged hair cells that cannot perceive sound anymore
  • A problem with higher brain centres like the auditory cortex

Question 20

Question
What is sensorineural deafness?
Answer
  • Problem with the ossicles of the middle ear
  • Damage to the hair cells
  • A problem with higher brain centres like the auditory cortex

Question 21

Question
What is central deafness?
Answer
  • Problems with the ossicles in the middle ear
  • Damage to the hair cells
  • Problems with higher brain centres such as the auditory cortex

Question 22

Question
A cochleal implant effectively emulates the basilar membrane. Low frequency sounds travel further along the implant wiring and high frequency sounds travel a shorter distance and this input can be directly linked to the auditory nerve to stimulate it.
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 23

Question
Taste cells are sensory neurons.
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 24

Question
Salt is detected via gated Na+ channels.
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 25

Question
Upon activation, sour detectors (PKD2L1 and PKD1L3) are depolarised and cause Ca2+ entry etc.
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 26

Question
What tastes are detected by the activation of G-protein coupled receptors?
Answer
  • Salt
  • Sour
  • Umami
  • Bitter
  • Sweet

Question 27

Question
What is the mechanism by which sweet, umami and bitter tastes are detected?
Answer
  • Receptor activated -> associated heterotrimeric complex alpha sub unit activated -> activates phospholipase-c-beta2 -> PLC-b2 activates IP3 -> IP3 activates TRPM -> Ca2+ influx -> neurotransmitter release -> sensory neurone excitation -> AP
  • Receptor activated -> associated heterotrimeric complex beta sub unit activated -> activates phospholipase-c-beta2 -> PLC-b2 activates IP3 -> IP3 activates TRPM -> Ca2+ influx -> neurotransmitter release -> sensory neurone excitation -> AP
  • Receptor activated -> associated heterodimeric complex alpha sub unit activated -> activates phospholipase-c-beta2 -> PLC-b2 activates IP3 -> IP3 activates TRPM -> Ca2+ influx -> neurotransmitter release -> sensory neurone excitation -> AP
  • Receptor activated -> associated heterodimeric complex beta sub unit activated -> activates phospholipase-c-beta2 -> PLC-b2 activates IP3 -> IP3 activates TRPM -> Ca2+ influx -> neurotransmitter release -> sensory neurone excitation -> AP

Question 28

Question
Which taste receptor is constant for sweet and umami (NOT PRESENT IN BITTER!)?
Answer
  • T1R3
  • T2R
  • T1R1
  • T1R2

Question 29

Question
Which taste receptor is variable for sweet?
Answer
  • T1R2
  • T2R
  • T1R1
  • T1R3

Question 30

Question
Which taste receptor is variable for umami?
Answer
  • T1R1
  • T1R2
  • T2R
  • T1R3

Question 31

Question
Which taste receptor is variable for bitter?
Answer
  • T2R
  • T1R3
  • T1R2
  • T1R1

Question 32

Question
Each taste cell can detect multiple types of taste.
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 33

Question
Where does taste information go to in the CNS?
Answer
  • Primary gustatory cortex
  • Pre-frontal gustatory cortex
  • Frontal cortex
  • Hippocampus

Question 34

Question
Olfaction is more sensitive than taste.
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 35

Question
What is the mechanism of olfaction?
Answer
  • Odorant binds -> alpha subunit of heterotrimeric complex activated -> alpha subunit activates adenylyl cyclase -> adenylyl cyclase activates Na+/Ca2+ symporter. Na+ helps with depol and Ca2+ helps with NT release -> Ca2+ activates calcium activated Cl- channel and Cl- is extruded causing further depolarisation.
  • Odorant binds -> beta subunit of heterotrimeric complex activated -> alpha subunit activates adenylyl cyclase -> adenylyl cyclase activates Na+/Ca2+ symporter. Na+ helps with depol and Ca2+ helps with NT release -> Ca2+ activates calcium activated Cl- channel and Cl- is extruded causing further depolarisation.
  • Odorant binds -> alpha subunit of heterodimeric complex activated -> alpha subunit activates adenylyl cyclase -> adenylyl cyclase activates Na+/Ca2+ symporter. Na+ helps with depol and Ca2+ helps with NT release -> Ca2+ activates calcium activated Cl- channel and Cl- is extruded causing further depolarisation.
  • Odorant binds -> beta subunit of heterodimeric complex activated -> alpha subunit activates adenylyl cyclase -> adenylyl cyclase activates Na+/Ca2+ symporter. Na+ helps with depol and Ca2+ helps with NT release -> Ca2+ activates calcium activated Cl- channel and Cl- is extruded causing further depolarisation.

Question 36

Question
Olfactory cells can only be stimulated by one type of odorant each.
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 37

Question
Olfactory cells of the same type converge into a common glomerulus where signals are then carried via the olfactory tract to the brain.
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 38

Question
Olfactory cells are neurones
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 39

Question
What three areas of the brain detect smell?
Answer
  • Pre-frontal cortex
  • Orbitofrontal cortex
  • Olfactory cortex
  • Thalamus
  • Hypothalamus

Question 40

Question
Detection of specific odorants requires specific coordination of neurons in the brain which produces smell profiles.
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 41

Question
The brain never considers taste and smell when trying to fine tune the two senses.
Answer
  • True
  • False
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