Anatomy & Physiology

Yan Yan Dela Cru
Mind Map by Yan Yan Dela Cru, updated more than 1 year ago
Yan Yan Dela Cru
Created by Yan Yan Dela Cru over 5 years ago
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Resource summary

Anatomy & Physiology
  1. Muscular System
    1. 600 Muscles with:
      1. The Characteristics of:
        1. Essential for Excercise
          1. in which there are 3 ways of Contraction During Excercise
            1. Eccentric (Lengthening)
              1. Isometric (Static)
                1. Concentric (Shortening)
                  1. are impotant for Bone Movements
                      1. Muscle Spindles Stretch Reflex (Monosynaptic & Polysynaptic), Golgi Tendon Organ Tension Relfex & The Reflex Arc
                        1. at joints
                    1. Irritability
                      1. Contractability
                        1. Elasticity
                          1. Extensibility
                            1. Conductivity
                              1. Muscles receive impulses from:
                                1. the Neuromuscular Junction
                                  1. Containing: Axion, Axion Terminal, Acetylcholine, Sarcolemma, Receptors, & Synaptic Cleft
                                    1. Contraction Happens because of:
                                      1. The Sliding Filament Theory
                                        1. uses: Z lines, Myosin, Actin, Calcium, ATP, Tropomysoin, Myofibril
                                2. Motor Units
                                  1. All-or-none Principle
                              2. are named after:
                                1. Direction of Fibres
                                  1. Location
                                    1. Number of Heads
                                      1. Shape of Muscle
                                        1. Action of Muscle
                                          1. Points of Attachment
                                          2. 4 Major Muscle Groups which are:
                                            1. Anterior: Quadriceps, Abdominals & Pectorals
                                              1. Posterior: Hamstrings, Rotator Cuffs, Erector Spinae, Rhomboids, Gluteals & Calf Muscles
                                            2. Functions
                                              1. Stability & Support
                                                1. Heat Production
                                                  1. Movement
                                                  2. 3 Types
                                                    1. Cardiac (Involuntary)
                                                      1. Skeletal Muscles (Voluntary)
                                                          1. Examples are:
                                                            1. Deltoid ( Trangle shape = Delta)
                                                              1. Pronator Quadratus (Pronates Forearm)
                                                                1. Sternocleidomastoid (Attaches at Sternum, Clavicle and Mastoid Process)
                                                                  1. Triceps (3 heads = Tri)
                                                                    1. Tibialis Anterior (Anterior Side)
                                                                      1. Rectus Abdominus (rectus)
                                                                        1. Pectoralis Major
                                                                          1. Popliteus
                                                                            1. Gastrocnemius
                                                                            2. Anatomy:
                                                                              1. Skeletal Muscle Fibre, Sarcolemma, Sarcoplasm, Sarcomeres, & Sarcoplamic Reticulum
                                                                            3. Smooth (Involuntary)
                                                                              1. Examples: are:
                                                                                1. Esophagus & Stomach
                                                                            4. Some injuries are:
                                                                              1. Tedonitis
                                                                                1. Delayed Onset Muscle Soreness (DOMS)
                                                                                  1. Muscle Strains & Tears
                                                                                  2. The Skeletal System
                                                                                    1. Consists of 206 Bones
                                                                                      1. divided into Appendicular (126 bones) & Axial (80 bones)
                                                                                        1. of which there are 5 Types of Bones:
                                                                                          1. Irregular
                                                                                            1. For example:
                                                                                              1. Vertebrae
                                                                                                1. Mandible
                                                                                            2. Short
                                                                                              1. For example:
                                                                                                1. Carpals
                                                                                                  1. Tarsals
                                                                                                    1. Which can have landmarks that serves as a guide to the locations of other body structures
                                                                                                      1. For Example: Tibial Tuberosity, Lateral Border, Greater Trochanter, etc.
                                                                                              2. Sesamoid
                                                                                                1. For example:
                                                                                                  1. Patella
                                                                                                2. Long Bones
                                                                                                  1. For Example:
                                                                                                    1. Femur
                                                                                                      1. Radius
                                                                                                        1. Humerus
                                                                                                        2. The parts of a long bone are:
                                                                                                          1. Cartilage, Epiphysis, Diaphysis, Cancellous Bone, Medullary Cavity, Periostem, Cortex, Compact Bone, Epiphyseal Plate
                                                                                                        3. Flat
                                                                                                          1. For Example:
                                                                                                            1. Scapulae
                                                                                                              1. Cranial Bones
                                                                                                          2. Axial consists of bones more medial on the body.
                                                                                                            1. Appendicular consists of bones more lateral
                                                                                                            2. Which move about the joints
                                                                                                              1. Joints are Classified in 3 different ways:
                                                                                                                1. Fibrous
                                                                                                                  1. Cartilaginous
                                                                                                                    1. Synovial Joints...
                                                                                                                      1. have characteristics such as...
                                                                                                                        1. Articular Cartilage, Joint Capsule, Joint Cavity, Bursae, Intrinsic & Extrinsic ligaments
                                                                                                                          1. There are 6 types of Synovial Joints:
                                                                                                                            1. Hinge Joints
                                                                                                                              1. Pivot Joints
                                                                                                                                1. Gliding Joints
                                                                                                                                  1. Ball & Socket Joints
                                                                                                                                    1. Ellipsoid Joints
                                                                                                                                      1. Saddle Joints
                                                                                                                            2. Some joint related Injuries & Diseases are:
                                                                                                                              1. Dislocations & Seperations
                                                                                                                                1. Osrteoarthiritis
                                                                                                                                  1. Rotator Cuff Tears: injury that involves one or all four muscles that make up the Rotator cuff at the shoulder: Supraspinatus, Infraspinatus, Teres Minor & Subscapularis
                                                                                                                            3. has 5 Functions which are:
                                                                                                                              1. Protection
                                                                                                                                1. Cell Production
                                                                                                                                  1. Mineral Reservoir
                                                                                                                                    1. Movement
                                                                                                                                      1. Structural Support
                                                                                                                                      2. Together they make
                                                                                                                                        1. can have Injuries such as:
                                                                                                                                          1. Fractures (bone breaks)
                                                                                                                                            1. Shin Splints (painful condition)
                                                                                                                                              1. Osteoporosis
                                                                                                                                                1. Which are naturally healed and put back together with the Bone Remodelling Cycle
                                                                                                                                                  1. Step 1: Resorption
                                                                                                                                                    1. Step 2: Reversal
                                                                                                                                                      1. Step 3: Bone Formation
                                                                                                                                                        1. Step 4: Mineralization
                                                                                                                                                      1. This processs consists of:
                                                                                                                                                        1. Osteoblasts (bone forming cells), Osteoid (gelatin-like substance), Osteoclasts (bone deconstruction cells)
                                                                                                                                                  2. the Musculoskeletal System and are connected:
                                                                                                                                                    1. Via Tendons (indirectly)
                                                                                                                                                      1. Outer membrance of muscle attaches to outer membrane of bone (directly)
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