Prather Test 1

cepa2k7
Quiz by , created over 4 years ago

prather

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cepa2k7
Created by cepa2k7 over 4 years ago
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Question 1

Question
The doctrine of specific nerve energies proposed by Johannes Muller holds that:
Answer
  • perceptual experiences are based on where information goes in the brain
  • language production is located in the left frontal lobes
  • the speed of nerve conduction is around 90 feet per second
  • reflexes involve a stimulus and a specific motor response

Question 2

Question
The processes by which inherited traits confer advantages to a species and allow that species to survive and reproduce would be:
Answer
  • fitness pressures
  • Lamarkian forces
  • natural selection
  • Mendelian hallmarks

Question 3

Question
What are the two kinds of cells in the nervous system?
Answer
  • neurons and glia
  • dendrites and axons
  • ribosomes and lysosomes
  • neurons and axons

Question 4

Question
The belief that only the physical reality exists and there is no such thing as a mind is:
Answer
  • dualism
  • materialism monism
  • mentalistic monism
  • Descartism

Question 5

Question
The output of information from a neuron would be performed by which of the following?
Answer
  • dendrites
  • soma
  • axon
  • mitochondria

Question 6

Question
The presynaptic membrane could also be called:
Answer
  • a dendrite
  • a nucleus
  • a vesicle
  • a terminal button

Question 7

Question
Someone who suffers from a disorder in which they cannot perceive anything specifically on the left side of their environment most likely suffers from
Answer
  • a split brain operation
  • unilateral neglect
  • damage to premotor cortex
  • blindsight

Question 8

Question
Consciousness is:
Answer
  • easily located anatomically in the brain
  • biologically a single neural structure
  • show in the research to be more than merely the physical properties of the brain
  • a complex, multilevel system of information processing in the brain

Question 9

Question
The organelles within a cell which contain enzymes used to chemically break down waste products are the:
Answer
  • mitochondria
  • lyzosomes
  • ribosomes
  • plasma membranes

Question 10

Question
The place in a cell responsible for directly making proteins would be the:
Answer
  • mitochondria
  • endoplasmic reticula
  • ribosomes
  • plasma membranes

Question 11

Question
Which function is NOT performed by glia?
Answer
  • providing a structural archetecture
  • building myelin sheaths
  • binding post-synaptic receptors
  • guiding the growth of axons

Question 12

Question
Which type of glia is primarily responsible for the myelin sheaths around axons in the central nervous system of the body?
Answer
  • astrocytes
  • Schwann cells
  • oligodendrocytes
  • radial glia

Question 13

Question
The small spaces between myelin sheaths are:
Answer
  • nodes of Ranvier
  • Cartesian points
  • synapses
  • cytoskeletal junctions

Question 14

Question
Which of the following would flow easily across the cell membrane?
Answer
  • large fat insoluble molecules
  • charged ions
  • DNA
  • water

Question 15

Question
Which organelle is responsible for making molecules of Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP)?
Answer
  • mitochondria
  • lyzosomes
  • ribosomes
  • nucleolus

Question 16

Question
How do chemicals that cannot flow freely across a cell membrane enter a neuron?
Answer
  • through a Golgi complex
  • through specialized protein channels
  • through the endoplasmic reticulum
  • through gaps in the myelin sheath

Question 17

Question
How many axons does the typical human neuron have?
Answer
  • 0
  • 1
  • many
  • exactly 2

Question 18

Question
What is the insulating material that covers some axons?
Answer
  • a bouton
  • a myelin sheath
  • an axonic spine
  • an intrinsic neuron

Question 19

Question
The primary function of the myelin sheaths is to:
Answer
  • increase speed of conduction
  • increase surface area
  • increase metabolism
  • decrease active transport

Question 20

Question
Which of the following best represent how ions are distributed in/around neurons?
Answer
  • Na+ ions are more concentrated inside and K+ ions are more concentrated outside.
  • K+ ions are more concentrated inside and Na+ ions are more concentrated outside.
  • Na+ ions are more concentrated in the dendrites and K+ ions are more concentrated in the axon.
  • K+ ions are more concentrated in the dendrites and Na+ ions are more concentrated in the axon.

Question 21

Question
The electrical gradient (only) for Potassium when a neuron is at rest tends to:
Answer
  • draw potassium into the cell
  • push potassium out of the cell
  • push sodium out of the cell
  • push chloride out of the cell

Question 22

Question
The primary mechanism by which the blood brain barrier prevents certain chemicals from entering the neural tissue is:
Answer
  • by limiting the access to the nodes of Ranvier
  • by using thick layers of myelin around nerve cells
  • by limiting the gaps between the cellular lining of the capillaries
  • by thickening the membranes of neurons

Question 23

Question
An axon has many branches, each of which swells at its tip. These are known as:
Answer
  • afferent axons
  • efferent axons
  • intrinsic neurons
  • terminal endfeet

Question 24

Question
When a neuron's membrane is at rest, which of the following molecules has both forces pushing it in the same direction?
Answer
  • potassium
  • sodium
  • water
  • carbon dioxide

Question 25

Question
The typical voltage difference across the membrane of a neuron at rest is about:
Answer
  • -30mV
  • +35mV
  • +70mV
  • -70mV

Question 26

Question
What is the result if a stimulus shifts the potential inside a neuron from the resting potential to a potential slightly closer to zero?
Answer
  • hyperpolarization
  • depolarization
  • selective permeability
  • a refractory period

Question 27

Question
Under normal conditions the sodium-potassium transporter (pump) moves:
Answer
  • 2 Na+ ions into a neuron for every 3 K+ ions it moves out.
  • 3 Na+ ions into a neuron for every 3 K+ ions it moves out.
  • 3 Na+ ions out of a neuron for every 2 K+ ions it moves in.
  • 2 Na+ ions out of a neuron for every 3 K+ ions it moves in.

Question 28

Question
A membrane produces an action potential whenever the potential across it reaches:
Answer
  • the resting potential
  • threshold
  • the -90 mV
  • the refractory period

Question 29

Question
What tends to open the electrically-gated (voltage-dependent) potassium channels across a neuron's membrane?
Answer
  • hyperpolarization of the membrane
  • depolarization of the membrane
  • increase in the sodium concentration outside of the neuron
  • the opening of Ca++ channels after the peak of an action potential

Question 30

Question
Stimulus A depolarizes a neuron just barely above the threshold. Stimulus B depolarizes a neuron to 10 mV beyond threshold. What can we expect to happen?
Answer
  • Stimulus B will produce an action potential that is conducted faster than A.
  • Stimulus B will produce an action potential of greater magnitude than A.
  • Stimulus B will produce an action potential, but stimulus A will not.
  • Stimulus A and stimulus B will produce the same response in the neuron.

Question 31

Question
When a neuron's membrane is at rest, which of the following molecules crosses through it MOST slowly?
Answer
  • potassium
  • sodium
  • water
  • carbon dioxide

Question 32

Question
Which of the following is true about excitatory post-synaptic potentials (EPSPs)?
Answer
  • They are a form of metabotropic effect.
  • They occur because chemically gated sodium channels open.
  • They occur because chemically gated chloride channels open.
  • They occur because potassium exits the postsynaptic cell.

Question 33

Question
Which movement of the ions would hyperpolarize the membrane of a neuron which is already slightly depolarized?
Answer
  • sodium ions into the cell
  • chloride ions into the cell
  • potassium ions into the cell
  • chloride ions out of the cell

Question 34

Question
Just after the peak of the action potential, what movement of ions restores the membrane to approximately the resting potential?
Answer
  • Sodium ions enter the cell.
  • Potassium ions enter the cell.
  • Potassium ions leave the cell.
  • Sodium ions travel down the axon.

Question 35

Question
Which of the following is an indolamine?
Answer
  • tyrosine
  • serotonin
  • norepinephrine
  • dopamine

Question 36

Question
All of the following are ways that a neuroactive drug can affect the amount of neurotransmitter at the synapse, except:
Answer
  • increasing the availability of substrates to produce neurotransmitters
  • increasing the enzymatic degradation of neurotransmitters
  • blocking cAMP effects derived from metabotropic receptors
  • blocking the enzyme choline acetyl transferase

Question 37

Question
What is the name of the enzyme which makes acetylcholine from its precursors?
Answer
  • acetylcholine esterase
  • choline acetyl transferase
  • dopa decarboxylase
  • monoamine oxidase

Question 38

Question
What happens after a neurotransmitter is released by a presynaptic cell?
Answer
  • It causes calcium to rush into the presynaptic neuron.
  • It causes calcium to rush into the postsynaptic neuron.
  • The neurotransmitter spreads across the synaptic gap based on diffusion.
  • The neurotransmitter is actively transported across the synaptic cleft.

Question 39

Question
Which amino acid is one of the precursors to dopamine in the brain?
Answer
  • phenylalanine
  • aspartate
  • tryptophan
  • glutamate

Question 40

Question
The enzyme that directly makes Dopa (DA) from tyrosine is:
Answer
  • tyrosine hydroxylase
  • tryptophan hydroxylase
  • dopa decarboxylase
  • choline acetyl transferase

Question 41

Question
A drug that reduces or blocks the effects of a neurotransmitter at the receptor would be a(n):
Answer
  • direct agonist
  • indirect agonist
  • direct antagonist
  • indirect antagonist

Question 42

Question
What would be the effect of a drug that inhibits that enzyme acetylcholinesterase (AchE)?
Answer
  • It would prolong the action of acetylcholine at its synapses.
  • It would decrease the duration of action of acetylcholine at its synapses.
  • It would decrease the synthesis of acetylcholine by the presynaptic cell.
  • It would increase the synthesis of acetylcholine by the presynaptic cell.

Question 43

Question
Catechol-o-methyl transferase (COMT) and Mono-Amine Oxidase (MAO) are:
Answer
  • enzymes that convert catecholamines into inactive chemicals.
  • enzymes that make catecholamines.
  • neurotransmitters in the same group as serotonin.
  • the inactive fragments of catecholamines.

Question 44

Question
Reuptake is the process of:
Answer
  • recycling of neurotransmitters
  • enzymatic breakdown of neurotransmitters
  • absorption of neurotransmitter by the postsynaptic neuron
  • re-release of neurotransmitters from postsynaptic neurons

Question 45

Question
Muscarine is a:
Answer
  • indirect DA agonist
  • direct DA agonist
  • direct ACh agonist
  • indirect ACh antagonist