Which of the following increases as an adaptation to chronic resistance training but decreases as an adaptation to chronic aerobic training?
maximal power production
The latissmus dorsi performs which of the following types of muscle actions during the upward movement phase of the lat pulldown exercise?
A 12-year old male has been resistance training twice a week for six weeks. Which of the following adaptations contribute MOST to training induced strength gains?
greater testosterone concentration
increased motor unit activation
increased muscle size
During a concentric muscle action, which of the following binds with calcium to allow cross-bridge interactions?
A 315-pound (143 kg) male collegiate American football offensive lineman is tested to determine his training status. Based upon the results shown below, which of the following areas should his training program emphasize?
40-yard sprint: 5.9 seconds
1RM bench press: 405 pounds (184 kg)
1RM back squat 530 pounds (241 kg)
upper body strength
lower body strength
Using the Karvonen method, which of the following is the target heart rate for a 30-year-old male aerobically exercising at 80% of his functional capacity if his resting heart rate is 60 bpm?
A 23-year old Division I college baseball player achieved the following testing results:
1RM bench press: 245 pounds (111kg)
1RM back squat 275 pounds (125 kg)
Sit and reach 20 inches (51 cm)
1.5 mile run: 10:16 (minutes: seconds)
When designing his training program, the strength and conditioning
professional should focus on improving:
lower body strength
upper body strength
To achieve maximal performance in aerobic endurance events lasting over an hour, the preferred beverage to drink during the event should be:
I. cool (50 degrees F/10 degrees C)
II. at room temperature (68 degrees F/20 degree C)
III. a 16% carbohydrate concentration beverage
IV. a 6 % carbohydrate beverage
II and III only
I and IV only
I and III only
Force production during the leg (knee) extension is affected by the angle of the hip joint due to the activation capabilities of which of the following muscles?
4. The result of an in-season analysis reveals that a junior women’s basketball forward has a daily intake of 2350 kilocalories that consists of this nutrient breakdown:
1500 kilocalories of Carbohydrates
500 kilocalories of protein
350 kilocalories of fat
Which of the following actions should the strength and conditioning professional recommend?
increase fat intake
increase protein intake
increase carbohydrate intake
Which type of exercise has the GREATEST positive influence on bone mineral density?
open kinetic chain
All of the following are physiological differences between elite long-distance cyclists and elite Olympic weight lifters EXCEPT?
Cross-sectional area of the triceps brachii muscle
Which of the following is an expected change in an untrained 62-year old woman as a result of following a 2-days-per-week light resistance training program (60% of 1RM) for 4 weeks?
increase motor unit recruitment
increased upper body muscle hypertrophy
decrease aerobic capacity
8. Which of the following nutritional recommendations is appropriate for an 18 year old 5’10” (178cm), 170-pound (77-kg) male collegiate baseball player who wants to increase muscle mass and strength?
Daily Protein Intake (g/kg) Daily Protein Intake (kilocalories from Protein)
An 18-year-old rugby player is starting his first periodized resistance training program in a collegiate strength and conditioning facility. The strength and conditioning professional conducted strength testing every 6 weeks with the following results:
Exercise Pre-testing Week 6 Week 12 Week 18
1RM Bench Press 200 lbs (91 kg) 210 lbs (95 kg) 215 lbs (98 kg) 225 pounds (102kg)
Which of the following neuromuscular adaptations is PRIMARILY responsible
for the increases in strength from week 6 to week 18?
muscle fiber hypertrophy
motor unit firing rate increases
muscle fiber recruitment increases
Immediately following a training run of 6 miles (10km), which of the following is the BEST food to consume to promote glycogen restoration?
1 cup 9274 ml) of orange juice
1 pint (473 ml) of skim milk
1 slice of rye bread
During the upward phase of the push press exercise the:
I. knees and hips remain fully extended
II. quadriceps muscles are agonists.
III. Triceps Brachii and anterior deltoids are aganists.
IV. shoulder joints are initially hyperextended.
I and III only
II and III only
I and IV only
Over-consuming foods that are high in which of the following substances is MOST often linked with an increase in risk developing atherosclerosis?
Which of the following is a marker of aerobic overtraining?
decreased serum testosterone concentration
increased muscle glycogen stores
decreased post workout muscle soreness
Which of the following will lengthen the I-bands of the sarcomeres within the biceps brachii muscle?
downward movement phase of the bench press
upward movement phase of the upright row
downward movement phase of the triceps pushdown
Decreasing which of the following variable will, with training cause an increase in the capacity of the lactic acid energy system to produce ATP?
A freshman collegiate 1600-meter runner, who has been aerobically training for 2 years, increases her performance time throughout the course of her first season on the track team. Which of the following physiological responses is PRIMARILY responsible for her performance increases?
increase in running economy
decrease in lean body mass
increase in maximum heart rate
Nervousness. irritability, increased body temperature, muscle tremors, increased heart rate and palpitations are all common side effects of consuming which of the following substance?
What is the MINIMUM amount of carbohydrates that a 132-pound (60-kg) competitive Olympic triathlete should consume on a daily basis?
As an athlete maintains exercise at near maximum intensity, which of the following will accumulate in the working muscle?
Which of the following is the commonly-accepted threshold for binge eating that is associated with bulimia nervosa?
seven binge-eating episodes per week for at least three weeks
an average of two binge-eating episodes per week
an average of two binge-eating episodes per week for at least three months.
Which of the following psychological mindsets to enhance an athlete’s performance is described by a personal desire to improve?
Which of the following changes to an athlete’s resistance training workout will DECREASE the power output of the power clean exercise?
increase the speed the athlete performs the exercise
increase the load from 90% to 95% of the athlete’s 1RM
lengthen the rest period between sets of the exercise
Which of the following adaptations is an outcome of heavy resistance training
(≥85% 1RM) that can IMPROVE the performance of a tennis player?
increase cross-sectional area of Type II muscle fibers
decreased glycogen and triglyceride storage capacity
decreased capillary density
During the upward movement phase of the front squat exercise, which of the following muscles acts as an antagonist to the concentric movement?
26. Which of the following changes in the autonomic nervous system cause an athlete’s heart rate to increase during the anticipatory period immediately before the start of the race?
Parasympathetic activity Sympathetic activity
Which of the following cardiovascular responses is a disproportionately high during a set of a resistance training exercise as compared to during an aerobic exercise session?
Which of the following is the advantage of a resistance-trained athlete using the
Valsalva maneuver during an exercise?
the “fluid ball” can become more compressed
the entire torso is more rigid during the exercise
the glottis stays relaxed during the maneuver
A 120-pound (55-kg) female basketball player has the following test results:
1RM bench press: 155 pounds (70 kg)
1RM squat: 225 pounds (102 kg)
Vertical Jump: 15 inches (38 cm)
1-minute sit-up test: 65
Based on these results, which of the following exercises should be added to her
Which of the following is an appropriate work-to-rest ratio when using interval training to increase the capacity of the oxidative energy system?
Using the Karvonen formula, what is the target heart rate of a 40-year old
female athlete (with a resting heart rate of 80 bears per minute) who is
prescribed an exercise training intensity of 60%
188 beats per minute
164 beats per minute
140 beats per minute
A professional defensive tackle (American football) had the following testing results two months before the competitive season:
Body weight: 302 pounds (137 kg)
Vertical Jump 28 inches (71 cm)
1RM Bench Press 405 pounds (184 kg)
40-yard (37-m) sprint: 5.9 seconds
Which of the following areas should this athlete focus on to improve his