1. Model of second language acquisition (SLA) that describe real-time language processing in real-world language behaviour (e.g. the functionalist models) are classified as
A. competence models
B. heterogeneous models
C. performance models
D. variablility models
2. In her integrated model of SLA Gass (1997) distinguished the two types of input, i.e.
3. According to Ellis (2009), information notices and stored in temporary memory, which may or may not be subsequently processed in the interlanguage system described as
4. Selinker (1972) indentified five major cognitive processes responsible for SLA, one of them is
5. The process by which non-target forms become fixed in learner language, no matter what age he is or amount of input, explanation or instruction he receives, is reffered as
6. The process of using forms that belong to an earlier stage of development on some occasion, even though the learners uses the correct forms on other occasion, is called
7. According to Anderson's Adaptive Control of Thought Model (1983), which of the following is true? (1) One acquires declarative knowledge suddenly. (2) One acquires procedural knowledge gradually. (3) One communicate one's declarative knowledge verbally.
A. 1 and 2
B. 2 and 3
C. 1 and 3
D. 1,2 and 3
8. Which of the following utterances is most likely to appear last in the first language (L1) acquisition of the English negatives ( examples from Klima and Bellugi, cited in Ellis 2009)?
A. ' There no squirrels'
B. 'Wear mitten no.'
C. 'I not crying'
D. 'Not a teddy bear.'
9. Which of the following utterances is most likely to appear last in the naturalistic second language (L2) acquisition of the English negatives ( examples from Ellis 2009)?
A. ' No you are playing here'
B.' He didn't say it'
C. ' I can't play that one'
D. ' She not coming.'
10. Learners construct evolving interlanguage systems as a result of participating in discourse. They learn how to activate items and rules that are available initially in planned discourse, and later in unplanned discourse. This description characterizes which of the SLA models?
A. Ellis ' Variable Competence Model'
B. McLaughin's Processing Model
C. Krashen's Monitor Model
D. Preston's Socioliquistic Model
11. Operating Princliples (e.g. relevance) have been formulated to explain why certain linguistic forms appear in learner's production before others. They are the key concept of
A. the Acculturation Model
B. the Nativization Model
C. the Accommodation Model
D. the Discourse Model
12. Chomsky's distinction between competence and performance is based on the concepts of
A. acquistion and learning
B. language use and usage
C. explicit and implicit knowledge
D. langue and parole
13. Which school of thought in SLA has focused on studies of interactive discourse, sociocultural factors, cooperative group learning as well as individual cognitive development?
14. The mediation theory ( Osgood 1957), which claims that the linguistic stimulus (e.g. a word) elicits a "mediating" response, was an attempt to broaden which approach to SLA?
15. The neurological evidence is that as the human brain matures certain functions are assigned to the left or right hemisphere of the brain. This process is called
16. The stage which characterizes the course of the intellectual development of a learner od eleven to sixteen years of age is described by Piaget (1972) as
A. concrete operational
C. formal operational
17. According to Piaget (1972) equilibration characterizes interior organization of the learner's knowledge in which cognition is a process of
A. overcoming the psychological barriers
B. moving from states of doubt to certainty
C. hypothesis formation and testing
D. replacing the L1 system with the L2 system
18. The ability to form mental images of reality is described by Gardner (1983) as
A. bodily-kinaesthetic intelligence
B. intrapersonal intelligence
C. interpersonal intelligence
D. spatial intelligence
19. Which od the following features characterizes a right-brain dominant learner?
A. favours logical problem solving
B. relies on images in thinking
C. makes objective judgments
D. prefers multiple-choice tasks
20.Tarone (1983) claims that learners use a range of styles in their L2 production. Which of the following is characterized by the highest percentage of the use of correct L2 forms?
D. none of the above
21. According to O'Malley et al. (1985), using available information to guess meaning of new items, predict outcomes, or fill in missing information is a cognitive learning strategy of
22. According to Domel (1995), describing or exemplifying the target object or action (e.g. the thing you open bottles with for corkscrew) is a compensatory strategy of
23. Associating, grouping or placing new words in context refer to the memory strategy of
A. applying images and sounds
B. using formulas and patterns
C. creating mental linkages
D. analyzing and reasoning
24. Asking for clarification, verification or correction in a foreign language is a part of
A. social strategies
B. metacognitive strategies
C. compensation strategies
D. affective strategies
25. Bley-Vroman (1988) presents several statements about L1 acquisition. Which is untrue?
A. fossilization is unknown in L1 development
B. Learners develop intuitions regarding L1
C. Children's errors are not typically corrected
D. Sucess is influenced mainly by personality
26. Bley-Vroman (1988) presents several statements about L2 acquisition. Which is untrue?
A. L2 learners often fossilize and backslide.
B. Learners are often unable to judge L2 forms.
C. Correction is unhelpful or unnecessary
D. Sucess is influenced mainly by motivation
27. Bachman (1990) distinguishes the two major types of language competence. They are
A. linguistic and communicative
B. illocutionary and sociolinguistic
C. grammatical and testual
D. organizational and pragmatic
28. According to Bachman (1990) the central component of the learner's communicative language ability is strategic competence, which consists of language competence and
A. knowledge of the context of situation
B. language processing mechanism
C. knowledge of the world
D. psycho-psychological mechanisms
29. Willing (1987) claims that learners who are spontaneous, imaginative and emotional prefer
A. concrete learning style
B. communicative learning style
C. analytical learning style
D. authority-oriented learning style
30. In the sentence This book Mary likes a lot the learner is able to identify the agent, that is the logical subject, because it is signalled by one of the following devices. Which one?
D. word order
31. Prepositional stranding (PS) and pied piping (PP) are typological universals found in wh-questions and relative clauses, e.g. (1) With whom did Mary speak? (PP), (2) Who did Mary speak with? (PS). Which of the following statements is true?
A. learners of English produce more PS
B. learners of Polish produce more PS
C. any language that has PP also has PS
D. any language that has PS also has PP
32. In a model of speech planning phenomena, Wiese (1984) distinguished a number of factors that disturb the smooth flow of speech (e.g. repetitions, corrections). They are classified as
A. hesitation phenomena
B. temporal variables
C. monitoring devices
D. verbal distractions
33. The strenght of the learner's motivation depends on the extrenal influences. This is
A. The Internal Cause Hypothesis
B. the Carrot and Stick Hypothesis
C. The Intristic Hypothesis
D. the Resultative Hypothesis
34. According to the Parallel Distributed Processing Model of SLA, language learning
A. is a product of information processing
B. is based on habit reformulation
C. depends mainly on innate knowledge
A. is a product of information processing
35. Strategy training is a type of formal instruction focused primarily on
A. the L2 (e.g. grammar, pronunciation)
B. cognitive goals
C. learner-instruction matching
D. metacognitive goals
36. * 'He didn't took it'is an example of an error that results most probably from
B. double marking
37. Errors that are found in first and second language acquistion data are referred to as
38. The incorrect placement of a morpheme (e.g. 'What daddy is doing?') is an error of
39. According to the Accessibility Hierarchy (Comrie and Keenan 1979), the crutial factor in the acquisition of English is the proximity of the relativized noun phrases site to the head of the relative clause. In view of this hypothesis, which of the sentences would be acquired first?
A. The dog that I bought had brown eyes.
B. The dog whose name I forgot was big.
C. I bought the dog that looked very sad.
D. The dog that I looked at made me laugh.
40. According to the Government and Binding Model of SLA languages vary according to whether they forbid the deletion of subject pronouns. This parameter is called
41. In the UG model, which principle defines the restrictions that govern how far a phrase can be moved from deep to surface structure (e.g. 'What did Randy think his brother had won')?
42. Languages with 'null subjects' like Spanish or Russian differ from English in terms of word order and expletives (e.g. dummy 'it' and 'there' in English). This means that they
A. have free word order andexpletives
B. have fixed word order and expletives
C. have free word order but not expletives
D. dave fixed word order but not expletives
43. Generative linguists (e.g. White 1989) claim that English speaking children avoid sentences like 'Randy explained Mary the problem' in their L1 because they
A. obtain positive evidence in the input
B. avoid structures they never hear
C. receive direct negative feedback
D. rely on their innate knowledge
44. The length of children's utterances gradualy increases and their knowledge of grammatical structures is built up in steps. This is the evidence of
A. language as a human-specific faculty
B. the incremental nature of L1 acquisition
C. the uniqueness of their utterances
D. development of new language habits
45. One of the factors that may influence learner errors in genre. It refers to
A. the medium of learner production (e.g. oral)
B. the form of learner production (e.g. a letter)
C. the content the learner production (topic)
D. the setting (classroom or naturalistic)
46. One of the sources of performance errors, or mistakes, may be
A. communication strategies
B. transitional competence
C. learning strategies
47. Language used by parents when communicating with oother learners in L2 is called
A. baseline speech
B. caretaker speech
C. baby talk
D. modified speech
48. Language used by students when communicating with other learners in L2 is called
A. baseline sppech
B. foreigner talk
C. peer talk
D. simplified speech
49. Instruction can only promote SLA if learner is close to the point when the structure is acquired in the natural setting, i.e. when he is 'ready' for it. This stetement is advanced by
A. the Natural Order Hypothesis
B. the Markedness Differential Hypothesis
C. the Projection Hypothesis
D. the Teachability Hypothesis
50. Felix (1981) found that German learners of L2 English produced errors like "Doesn't she eat apples" instead of "No, she eats apples". He concludes that formal instruction may have