GCSE AQA Biology 2 Respiration & Exercise

Lilac Potato
Mind Map by , created over 4 years ago

A mind map showing information about aerobic and anaerobic respiration, exercise increasing heart rate and using glycogen during exercise.

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Lilac Potato
Created by Lilac Potato over 4 years ago
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GCSE AQA Biology 2 Respiration & Exercise
1 Respiration
1.1 Involves reactions catalysed by enzymes
1.2 All living things respire to release energy from food
1.3 Respiration: The process of releasing energy from glucose, which goes on in every cell
2 Aerobic respiration
2.1 Respiration using oxygen
2.1.1 Most efficient way to release energy from glucose
2.2 Goes on all the time in plants & animals
2.3 Most reactions happen inside mitochondria
2.4 Glucose + oxygen ---> carbon dioxide + water + ENERGY
2.5 Energy released is used to...
2.5.1 Build up larger molecules from smaller ones

Annotations:

  • Like proteins from amino acids
2.5.2 (In animals) allow muscles to contract

Annotations:

  • Which allows them to move about
2.5.3 (In mammals & birds) keep body temp. steady
2.5.4 (In plants) build sugars, nitrates & other nutrients into amino acids, then proteins
3 Exercise increases heart rate
3.1 Muscles made of muscle cells - aerobically respire to contract muscles
3.1.1 Increase in muscle activity requires more glucose & oxygen to be supplied & extra carbon dioxide to be removed - blood has to flow at faster rate
3.2 Physical activity increases...
3.2.1 Breathing rate & makes you breathe more deeply - to meet demand for extra oxgen
3.2.2 Speed at which heart pumps
4 Glycogen is used during exercise
4.1 Some glucose from food stored as glycogen
4.2 Glycogen mainly stored in liver - each muscle has own store
4.3 During vigorous exercise, muscles use glucose rapidly - some of the glycogen is converted back to glucose (to provide more energy)
5 Anaerobic respiration
5.1 Respiration without oxygen
5.1.1 Doesn't release as much energy as aerobic
5.2 Incomplete breakdown of glucose
5.2.1 Glucose ---> ENERGY + lactic acid
5.3 Causes lactic acid build up in muscles - painful & causes muscle fatigue

Annotations:

  • Muscle fatigue: when muscles get tired & stop contracting efficiently
5.4 Can allow use of muscles for longer
5.5 Leads to oxygen debt
5.5.1 Have to 'repay' oxygen that didn't reach muscles in time
5.5.1.1 Have to breathe hard for a while after stopping to get more oxgygen into blood - blood flows through muscles to remove lactic acid by oxidising it to carbon dioxide & water
5.5.1.1.1 While high levels of carbon dioxide & lactic acid detected - pulse & breathing rate stay high

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