Energy Metabolism (chapter 9)

Jess Weistuch
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Jess Weistuch
Created by Jess Weistuch about 4 years ago
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Question 1

Question
What is the definition of metabolism?
Answer
  • A set of reactions that accomplish a goal
  • The entire network of chemical processes involved in maintaining life
  • the main form of energy the body uses
  • when a substance gains 1 or more electrons

Question 2

Question
What is the definition of anabolic?
Answer
  • the process of building larger more complex compounds from smaller simpler ones
  • the process of breaking down compounds into smaller units
  • series of chemical reactions occurring in a cell
  • oxidation of food molecules resulting in the eventual release of energy, CO2, and water

Question 3

Question
What is the primary energy source for cells?
Answer
  • ADP
  • ARP
  • ATP
  • ALP

Question 4

Question
Which is NOT part of the ATP/ADP cycle?
Answer
  • Break ATP bonds to get energy
  • ADP is formed from ATP
  • ATP is formed from ADP + P
  • FADH2 is formed

Question 5

Question
When is a substance oxidized?
Answer
  • when a substance gains electrons
  • when a substance loses electrons

Question 6

Question
Which is not one of the 4 stages in producing ATP from carbohydrates?
Answer
  • GI Tract
  • Glycolysis
  • Transition Reaction
  • Citric Acid Cycle
  • Electron Transport Chain

Question 7

Question
After ATP is formed from carbohydrates, how much ATP does it form?
Answer
  • 21 ATP
  • 39 ATP
  • 32 ATP
  • 61 ATP

Question 8

Question
What is the goal of glycolysis?
Answer
  • to create ketone bodies
  • to break down glucose into smaller molecules
  • to generate new glucose from certain amino acids
  • to completely eliminate glucose

Question 9

Question
What is the macronutrient that is especially easy for the body to store as fat when excess kcal are consumed?
Answer
  • Lipids
  • Carbohydrates
  • Proteins
  • Vitamins

Question 10

Question
What is the goal of the transition reaction?
Answer
  • Produce NADH, FADH2 from acetyl CoA to use in step 4 (electron transport chain)
  • Form ATP by oxidizing NADH and FADH2 produced
  • Get pyruvate ready for citric acid cycle
  • Break down glucose into smaller molecules

Question 11

Question
What is the goal of the citric acid cycle?
Answer
  • Form ATP by oxidizing NADH and FADH2 produced
  • Break down glucose into smaller molecules
  • Produce NADH, FADH2 from acetyl CoA
  • Break down glucose when there’s no oxygen

Question 12

Question
What is NOT true about the electron transport chain?
Answer
  • the goal is to form ATP by oxidizing NADH and FADH2
  • the end gives you 28 ATP
  • it is a metabolic pathway
  • it is the step before the citric acid cycle

Question 13

Question
Aerobic produces more ATP than anerobic
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 14

Question
Which organ can manufacture nonessential amino acids, convert fructose to glucose, and build fatty acids from excess glucose?
Answer
  • liver
  • stomach
  • pancreas
  • heart

Question 15

Question
Which metabolic pathway uses amino acids to synthesize glucose when glycogen has been depleted in the body?
Answer
  • electron transport chain
  • gluconeogenesis
  • citric acid cycle
  • glycolysis

Question 16

Question
Which two macronutrients does the body draw on stored forms to provide energy when nutrients from a meal are no longer available?
Answer
  • vitamins and minerals
  • carbs and minerals
  • carbs and proteins
  • carbs and lipids

Question 17

Question
Which macronutrient is replaced in the body's fuel mix when carbs are consumed in excess of the body's needs during 'feasting.'
Answer
  • lipids
  • proteins
  • alcohol
  • vitamins

Question 18

Question
Which metabolic compound enters the citric acid cycle during the aerobic metabolism of glucose?
Answer
  • NAD+
  • Acetyl CoA
  • NADH
  • FADH2

Question 19

Question
Which metabolic pathway is responsible for the formation of pyruvate from glucose?
Answer
  • transition reaction
  • electron transport chain
  • glycolysis
  • citric acid cycle

Question 20

Question
After glycogen stores in the body are depleted during fasting, these compounds are formed from the incomplete breakdown of fat to provide energy for certain parts of the body.
Answer
  • Ketone bodies
  • Acetyl-CoA
  • Citrate
  • Pyruvate

Question 21

Question
What is the breakdown of triglycerides into glycerol and free fatty acids?
Answer
  • Ketosis
  • Gluconeogenesis
  • Lipolysis
  • Glycolysis

Question 22

Question
Glycolysis is a biochemical pathway that
Answer
  • breaks down glucose
  • generates energy
  • takes place in the cytosol
  • all of the above

Question 23

Question
Glycolysis begins with ____________ and ends with ______________:
Answer
  • pyruvate; water
  • pyruvate; glucose
  • glucose; pyruvate
  • pyruvate; acetyl-CoA

Question 24

Question
What is the goal of beta-oxidation?
Answer
  • Produce NADH, FADH2 from acetyl CoA to use in electron transport chain
  • Cleave (cut) fatty acid at the beta carbon
  • Produce glucose from glucogenic amino acids
  • Breakdown proteins to amino acids

Question 25

Question
What is the total ATP when making ATP from fatty acids?
Answer
  • 68
  • 100
  • 108
  • 35

Question 26

Question
When does ketosis NOT generally occur?
Answer
  • in type 1 diabetics
  • very low carb diets
  • fasting/starvation
  • in type 2 diabetics

Question 27

Question
What does the production of ketones prevent?
Answer
  • use of body protein for energy during starvation
  • use of body lipids for energy during starvation
  • use of body vitamins for energy during starvation
  • use of body carbs for energy during starvation

Question 28

Question
What is the first step in making ATP from proteins?
Answer
  • glycolysis
  • alcohol oxidation
  • Deamination
  • citric acid cycle

Question 29

Question
Which is not part of the process of deamination?
Answer
  • Amino group removed
  • Produces ATP without becoming acetyl-CoA
  • Nitrogen turned into ammonia
  • Leaves carbon skeleton to use for energy

Question 30

Question
What are the two types of amino acids?
Answer
  • Glucogenic and Ketogenic
  • Glucogenic and Oxygenic
  • Ketogenic and Oxygenic
  • Oxygenic and Glycogenic

Question 31

Question
Which is true about Ketogenic amino acids?
Answer
  • Can produce ATP without becoming acetyl-CoA
  • Can produce ATP without Oxygen
  • Must become acetyl-CoA to produce ATP
  • Can produce ADP without becoming acetyl-CoA

Question 32

Question
Which is NOT required to make ATP from carbs?
Answer
  • Glycolysis
  • Transition reaction
  • Lipolysis
  • Citric acid cycle

Question 33

Question
Which is NOT part of makingATP from fats?
Answer
  • Ketogenesis
  • Lipolysis
  • Beta-Oxidation
  • Ketosis

Question 34

Question
Check all of the boxes that are part part of the process of making ATP from protein.
Answer
  • Breakdown proteins to amino acids
  • Deaminate amino acids (left with carbon skeletons)
  • Glucogenic amino acids (straight into citric acid cycle)
  • Excess acetyl-CoA made into fat
  • Ketogenic amino acids (become Acetyl-CoA and then citric acid cycle
  • Moderate to excessive consumption overwhelms citric acid cycle

Question 35

Question
Which is NOT one of the pathways for alcohol metabolism?
Answer
  • Alcohol hydrogenase
  • Alcohol dehydrogenase
  • MEOS pathway

Question 36

Question
Which correctly states the right times for fasting?
Answer
  • Long-term (10-15 days)
  • Initial (2-8 hours)
  • Short-term (3-5 days)

Question 37

Question
Which correctly matches the macronutrient with its effects from feasting
Answer
  • Protein First stored in amino acid pool Second stored as glycogen
  • Carbohydrate: First goes to glycogen stores Second stored as adipose Conversion requires energy
  • Fat: Readily stored as NADH

Question 38

Question
When muscle tissue is exercising under anaerobic conditions, the production of _______ is important because it assures a continuous supply of NAD.
Answer
  • glucose-6-phosphate
  • pyruvate
  • lactate
  • glycogen

Question 39

Question
The net energy production of ATP via glycolysis is _______.
Answer
  • 1 ADP
  • 2 ATP
  • 4 FADH
  • 2 GTP
  • none of the above

Question 40

Question
The common pathway for the oxidation of glucose and fatty acid is _________.
Answer
  • glycolysis
  • the urea cycle
  • the citric acid cycle
  • ketosis

Question 41

Question
The oxidation of fatty acids occurs in the ____________.
Answer
  • cell membrane
  • mitochondria
  • nucleus
  • cytosol

Question 42

Question
Metabolism is regulated by ___________.
Answer
  • hormones
  • enzymes
  • the energy status of the body
  • all of the above

Question 43

Question
During periods of starvation, the body uses protein as a fuel source for the brain and central nervous system in a pathway called gluconeogenesis.
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 44

Question
Insulin is ________.
Answer
  • a coenzyme in the glycolytic pathway
  • a cofactor needed for gluconeogenesis
  • an anabolic hormone (build larger, more complex compounds)
  • a catabolic hormone (break down compounds into small units)