Supreme Court Review

sgeorg1
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Question 1

Question
[blank_start]Marbury v. Madison[blank_end], (1803), was a landmark United States Supreme Court case in which the Court formed the basis for the exercise of judicial review in the United States under Article III of the Constitution. The landmark decision helped define the boundary between the constitutionally separate executive and judicial branches of the American form of government.
Answer
  • Marbury v. Madison

Question 2

Question
[blank_start]McCulloch v. Maryland[blank_end], 17 U.S. 316 (1819), was a landmark decision by the Supreme Court of the United States. The state of Maryland had attempted to impede operation of a branch of the Second Bank of the United States by imposing a tax on all notes of banks not chartered in the state involved. The Court invoked the Necessary and Proper Clause of the Constitution, which allowed the Federal government to pass laws not expressly provided for in the Constitution's list of express powers, provided those laws are in useful furtherance of the express powers of Congress under the Constitution. This case established two important principles in constitutional law. First, the Constitution grants to Congress [blank_start]implied powers[blank_end] for implementing the Constitution's express powers, in order to create a functional national government. Second, state action may not impede valid constitutional exercises of power by the Federal government.
Answer
  • McCulloch v. Maryland
  • implied powers

Question 3

Question
Gibbons v. Ogden, 22 U.S. 1 (1824), was a landmark decision in which the Supreme Court of the United States held that the power to [blank_start]regulate interstate commerce[blank_end], granted to Congress by the Commerce Clause of the United States Constitution,
Answer
  • regulate interstate commerce

Question 4

Question
[blank_start]Worcester v. Georgia[blank_end] was a case in which the United States Supreme Court held that the Georgia criminal statute that prohibited non-Native Americans from being present on Native American lands without a license from the state was unconstitutional. The opinion is most famous for its dicta, which laid out the relationship between tribes and the state and federal governments, stating that the federal government was the sole authority to deal with Indian nations. It is considered to have built the foundations of the doctrine of tribal sovereignty in the United States.
Answer
  • Worcester v. Georgia

Question 5

Question
[blank_start]Dred Scott v. Sandford[blank_end], 60 U.S. 393 (1857), was a landmark decision by the U.S. Supreme Court in which the Court held that "a negro, whose ancestors were imported into [the U.S.], and sold as slaves", whether enslaved or free, could not be an American citizen and therefore had no standing to sue in federal court, and that the federal government had no power to regulate slavery in the federal territories acquired after the creation of the United States. Dred Scott, an enslaved man of "the negro African race" who had been taken by his owners to free states and territories, attempted to sue for his freedom. In a 7–2 decision written by Chief Justice [blank_start]Roger B. Taney[blank_end], the Court denied Scott's request. The decision was only the second time in history that the Supreme Court ruled an Act of Congress to be unconstitutional.
Answer
  • Dred Scott v. Sandford
  • Roger B. Taney

Question 6

Question
[blank_start]Plessy v. Ferguson[blank_end], 163 U.S. 537 (1896), was a landmark United States Supreme Court decision upholding the constitutionality of state laws requiring racial segregation in public facilities under the doctrine of "[blank_start]separate but equal[blank_end]". The decision was handed down by a vote of 7 to 1 with the majority opinion written by Justice Henry Billings Brown and the dissent written by Justice John Marshall Harlan. "Separate but equal" remained standard doctrine in U.S. law until its repudiation in the [blank_start]1954[blank_end] Supreme Court decision Brown v. Board of Education. After the Supreme Court ruling, the New Orleans Comité des Citoyens (Committee of Citizens), which had brought the suit and had arranged for Homer Plessy's arrest in an act of civil disobedience in order to challenge Louisiana's segregation law, stated, "We, as freemen, still believe that we were right and our cause is sacred."
Answer
  • Plessy v. Ferguson
  • separate but equal
  • 1954

Question 7

Question
[blank_start]Schenck v. United States[blank_end], 249 U.S. 47 (1919), is a United States Supreme Court case concerning enforcement of the Espionage Act of 1917 during [blank_start]World War I[blank_end]. A unanimous Supreme Court, in a famous opinion by Justice [blank_start]Oliver Wendell Holmes[blank_end], Jr., concluded that defendants who distributed leaflets to draft-age men, urging resistance to induction, could be convicted of an attempt to obstruct the draft, a criminal offense. The First Amendment did not alter the well-established law in cases where the attempt was made through expressions that would be protected in other circumstances. In this opinion, Holmes said that expressions which in the circumstances were intended to result in a crime, and posed a "[blank_start]clear and present danger[blank_end]" of succeeding, could be punished. The Court continued to follow this reasoning to uphold a series of convictions arising out of prosecutions during war time, but Holmes began to dissent in the case of Abrams v. United States, insisting that the Court had departed from the standard he had crafted for them, and had begun to allow punishment for ideas. But the Court has set another line of precedents to govern cases in which the constitutionality of a statute is challenged on its face.
Answer
  • Schenck v. United States
  • World War I
  • Oliver Wendell Holmes
  • clear and present danger

Question 8

Question
[blank_start]Korematsu v. United States[blank_end], 323 U.S. 214 (1944), was a landmark United States Supreme Court case concerning the constitutionality of Executive Order [blank_start]9066[blank_end], which ordered Japanese Americans into internment camps during World War II regardless of citizenship. In a 6–3 decision, the Court sided with the government, ruling that the exclusion order was constitutional. Six of eight Roosevelt appointees sided with Roosevelt. The lone Republican appointee, Owen Roberts, dissented. The opinion, written by Supreme Court justice Hugo Black, held that the need to protect against espionage outweighed Fred [blank_start]Korematsu[blank_end]'s individual rights, and the rights of Americans of Japanese descent. (The Court limited its decision to the validity of the exclusion orders, adding, "The provisions of other orders requiring persons of Japanese ancestry to report to assembly centers and providing for the detention of such persons in assembly and relocation centers were separate, and their validity is not in issue in this proceeding.") During the case, Solicitor General Charles Fahy is alleged to have suppressed evidence by keeping from the Court a report from the Office of Naval Intelligence indicating that there was no evidence that Japanese Americans were acting as spies or sending signals to enemy submarines.
Answer
  • Korematsu v. United States
  • 9066
  • Korematsu

Question 9

Question
[blank_start]Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka[blank_end], 347 U.S. 483 (1954), was a landmark United States Supreme Court case in which the Court declared state laws establishing separate public schools for black and white students to be unconstitutional. The decision overturned the [blank_start]Plessy v. Ferguson[blank_end] decision of [blank_start]1896[blank_end], which allowed state-sponsored segregation, insofar as it applied to public education. Handed down on May 17, 1954, the Warren Court's unanimous (9–0) decision stated that "separate educational facilities are [blank_start]inherently unequal[blank_end]." As a result, de jure racial segregation was ruled a violation of the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment of the United States Constitution. This ruling paved the way for integration and was a major victory of the Civil Rights Movement. However, the decision's fourteen pages did not spell out any sort of method for ending racial segregation in schools, and the Court's second decision in Brown II only ordered states to desegregate "with all deliberate speed".
Answer
  • Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka
  • Plessy v. Ferguson
  • 1896
  • inherently unequal

Question 10

Question
[blank_start]Mapp v. Ohio[blank_end], 367 U.S. 643 (1961), was a landmark case in criminal procedure, in which the United States Supreme Court decided that evidence obtained in violation of the Fourth Amendment, which protects against "unreasonable searches and seizures," may not be used in state law criminal prosecutions in state courts, as well as in federal criminal law prosecutions in federal courts as had previously been the law. The Supreme Court accomplished this by use of a principle known as selective incorporation; in Mapp this involved the incorporation of the provisions, as interpreted by the Court, of the [blank_start]Fourth[blank_end] Amendment which are applicable only to actions of the federal government into the [blank_start]Fourteenth[blank_end] Amendment due process clause which is applicable to actions of the states.
Answer
  • Mapp v. Ohio
  • Fourth
  • Fourteenth

Question 11

Question
[blank_start]Engel v. Vitale[blank_end], 370 U.S. 421 (1962), was a landmark United States Supreme Court case that ruled it is unconstitutional for state officials to compose an official school prayer and encourage its recitation in public schools.
Answer
  • Engel v. Vitale

Question 12

Question
[blank_start]Gideon v. Wainwright[blank_end], 372 U.S. 335 (1963), is a landmark case in United States Supreme Court history. In it, the Supreme Court unanimously ruled that states are required under the Fourteenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution to provide counsel in criminal cases to represent defendants who are unable to afford to pay their own attorneys. The case extended the right to counsel, which had been found under the Fifth and Sixth Amendments to impose requirements on the federal government, by ruling that this right imposed those requirements upon the states as well.
Answer
  • Gideon v. Wainwright

Question 13

Question
[blank_start]Miranda v. Arizona[blank_end], 384 U.S. 436 (1966), was a landmark decision of the United States Supreme Court. In a 5-4 majority, the Court held that both inculpatory and exculpatory statements made in response to interrogation by a defendant in police custody will be admissible at trial only if the prosecution can show that the defendant was informed of the right to consult with an attorney before and during questioning and of the right against self-incrimination before police questioning, and that the defendant not only understood these rights, but voluntarily waived them.
Answer
  • Miranda v. Arizona

Question 14

Question
[blank_start]Tinker v. Des Moines[blank_end] Independent Community School District, 393 U.S. 503 (1969) was a decision by the United States Supreme Court that defined the constitutional rights of students in U.S. public schools. The [blank_start]Tinker[blank_end] test is still used by courts today to determine whether a school's disciplinary actions violate students' First Amendment rights.
Answer
  • Tinker v. Des Moines
  • Tinker

Question 15

Question
[blank_start]Roe v. Wade[blank_end], 410 U.S. 113 (1973), is a landmark decision by the United States Supreme Court on the issue of abortion. It was decided simultaneously with a companion case, Doe v. Bolton. The Court ruled 7–2 that a right to privacy under the Due Process Clause of the 14th Amendment extended to a woman's decision to have an abortion, but that this right must be balanced against the state's two legitimate interests in regulating abortions: protecting women's health and protecting the potentiality of human life. Arguing that these state interests became stronger over the course of a pregnancy, the Court resolved this balancing test by tying state regulation of abortion to the third trimester of pregnancy.
Answer
  • Roe v. Wade

Question 16

Question
[blank_start]United States v. Nixon[blank_end], 418 U.S. 683 (1974), was a landmark United States Supreme Court decision. It resulted in a unanimous 8–0 ruling against President Richard Nixon and was important to the late stages of the Watergate scandal. It is considered a crucial precedent limiting the power of any US president.
Answer
  • United States v. Nixon

Question 17

Question
Regents of the [blank_start]University of California v. Bakke[blank_end], (1978) was a landmark decision by the Supreme Court of the United States. It upheld [blank_start]affirmative action[blank_end], allowing race to be one of several factors in college admission policy. However, the court ruled that specific racial quotas, such as the 16 out of 100 seats set aside for minority students were impermissible.
Answer
  • University of California v. Bakke
  • affirmative action

Question 18

Question
[blank_start]New Jersey v. T.L.O.[blank_end], 469 U.S. 325 (1985), is a decision by the Supreme Court of the United States addressing the constitutionality of a search of a public high school student for contraband after she was caught smoking. A subsequent search of her purse revealed drug paraphernalia, marijuana, and documentation of drug sales. She was charged as a juvenile for the drugs and paraphernalia found in the search. She fought the search, claiming it violated her Fourth Amendment right against unreasonable searches. The U.S. Supreme Court, in a 6-3 ruling, held that the search by the Piscataway Township Schools was reasonable under the Fourth Amendment.
Answer
  • New Jersey v. T.L.O.

Question 19

Question
[blank_start]Texas v. Johnson[blank_end], 491 U.S. 397 (1989), was a decision by the Supreme Court of the United States that invalidated prohibitions on desecrating the American flag enforced in 48 of the 50 states. Justice William Brennan wrote for a five-justice majority in holding that the defendant's act of flag burning was protected speech under the First Amendment to the United States Constitution.
Answer
  • Texas v. Johnson
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