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VMRCVM Gen. Vet Med course, class of 2016. Lecture 3.

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Created by voakes over 5 years ago
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Question 1

Question
Pyrexia is defined as:
Answer
  • An elevation in core temperature secondary to a changed thermoregulatory set point in the hypothalamus.
  • An elevation in core temperature directly attributable to the release of pyrikines.
  • An elevation in body temperature due to outside forces without a change in the thermoregulatory set point.
  • None of the answer choices correctly define pyrexia.

Question 2

Question
Exogenous pyrogens (such as infectious agents) bind the hypothalamus directly to alter the thermoregulatory set point.
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 3

Question
A fever of unknown origin can be described as a prolonged fever that has not responded to short course treatment, and for which initial tests have not revealed a specific cause.
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 4

Question
Which of the following are potential causes of FUO? Select all that apply.
Answer
  • Heat stroke
  • Viral infections
  • Protozoal diseases
  • Shock
  • Neoplasia
  • Auto-immune diseases

Question 5

Question
When presented with a patient with an elevated temperature, a brief PE is all that is necessary. Your lab results will provide you with much better information than your exam will.
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 6

Question
When considering diagnosis for an FUO, which of the following is important to keep in mind?
Answer
  • Tests run are definitive, so while they may be expensive, you can assure the owner that it's a one-time cost.
  • Diagnostics should always consider each problem individually, and each body system should be thoroughly explored before providing a conclusive diagnosis.
  • If a patient is on medications, it is important that they remain on those medications throughout the testing process.
  • If there is no higher yield problem apparent, diagnostics should begin with safe, non-invasive tests.
  • More than one of these answer choices is correct.

Question 7

Question
Stage One of the diagnostic approach to FUOs includes:
Answer
  • Simple, safe, and basic tests, such as blood work, radiographs, ultrasound, and a short antibiotic trial as needed.
  • Slightly more advanced testing, as we've already determined this is not an average fever: an echocardiogram, blood culture, and bone marrow aspirate may be called for.
  • Biopsies, anti-fungal trials, and soft-tissue scans, as most causative agents of FUOs can be identified through these methods.
  • None of these answer choices are correct.

Question 8

Question
Ultimately the rigmarole of diagnosing the causative agent of an FUO is moot. Therapeutic trials are our best option, and if they don't work, the side effects are minimal.
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 9

Question
If a patient is suffering from a severe fever or hyperthermia and the owner is unable to come in immediately, suggesting a cold water bath is appropriate medical advice.
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 10

Question
When it comes to treating a fever, which of the following is NOT appropriate?
Answer
  • Fluid therapy can be indicated in severe or prolonged fevers.
  • We always want to treat a fever, no matter the severity or the cause.
  • NSAIDs may be called for if the patient is not responding to other therapeutics.
  • Ultimately, prognosis depends on the causative agent.

Question 11

Question
Heat stroke can be characterized by which of the following? Select all that apply.
Answer
  • A fever typically higher than 106o F.
  • Heat generation beyond the body's capacity to dissipate it.
  • Compensation mechanisms to heat are overwhelmed.
  • The release of pyrogens following an inflammatory response.

Question 12

Question
Hyperthermia:
Answer
  • Will be high on your rule-out list for any animal presenting with an elevated temperature.
  • Arises spontaneous, and its prognosis is often poor.
  • Becomes a greater risk for brachycephalic dogs, particularly those living in warmer climes.
  • Is characterized by a significant drop in patient temperature.

Question 13

Question
Organ damage, particularly to the cardiovascular system and the gastrointestinal tract, often occurs in hyperthermia as a result of:
Answer
  • Hypovolemia leading to ischemia.
  • Denaturing of the epithelium/endothelium.
  • Endotoxemia and subsequent sepsis.
  • Severe thrombocytopenia, leading to petechiae and ecchymoses.

Question 14

Question
Which of the following are appropriate treatments for hyperthermia?
Answer
  • Cold water baths.
  • Cold water enemas.
  • Clipping thick haircoats, especially in the abdomen and jugular areas.
  • NSAIDs