Chapter 2: Theory, Research, and Evidence-Based Practice

Alexandra Bozan
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Alexandra Bozan
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Unit I: Foundations of Nursing Practice Chapter 2: Theory, Research, and Evidence-Based Practice

Resource summary

Question 1

Question
When you ask an experienced nurse why it is necessary to change the patient's bed every day, the nurse says, "I guess we have just always done it that way." This answer is an example of what type of knowledge?
Answer
  • Instinctitive knowledge
  • Scientific knowledge
  • Authoritative knowledge
  • Traditional knowledge

Question 2

Question
Which nursing actions reflect the use of philosophy as a knowledge base when delivering evidence-based care to patients?
Answer
  • A nurse interviews and examines a new patient diagnosed with prehypertension to formulate a care plan.
  • A nurse draws from personal experiences of being a patient to establish a therapeutic relationship with a patient.
  • A nurse searches the Internet to find the latest treatments for type 2 diabetes
  • A nurse uses spiritual training to draw strength when counseling a patient who is in hospice for an inoperable brain tumor.
  • A nurse follows the protocol for assessing postoperative patients in the ICU.
  • A nursing student studies anatomy and physiology of the body systems to understand the disease states of assigned patients.

Question 3

Question
A charge nurse meets with staff to outline a plan to provide transcultural nursing for patients in their health care facility. Which theorist promoted this type of caring as the central theme of nursing care, knowledge, and practice?
Answer
  • Madeline Leininger
  • Jean Watson
  • Dorothy E. Johnson
  • Betty Newman

Question 4

Question
A nurse is using general systems theory to describe the role of nursing to provide health promotion and patient teaching. Which statements reflect key points of this theory?
Answer
  • A system is a set of individual elements that rarely interact with each other.
  • The whole system is always greater than its parts.
  • Boundaries separate systems from each other and their environments.
  • A change in one subsystem will not affect other subsystems.
  • To survive, open systems maintain balance through feedback.
  • A closed system allows input from and to the environment.

Question 5

Question
A student nurse interacting with patients on a cardiac unit recognize the four concepts in nursing theory that determine nursing practice. Of these four, which is most important?
Answer
  • Person
  • Environment
  • Health
  • Nursing

Question 6

Question
A nurse manager schedules a clinic for the staff to address common nursing interventions used in the facility and to explore how they can be performed more efficiently and effectively. What is the term for this type of theory affecting change in clinical nursing practice?
Answer
  • Prescriptive theory
  • Descriptive theory
  • Developmental theory
  • General systems theory

Question 7

Question
When conducting quantitative research, the researcher collects information to support a hypothesis. This information would be identified as:
Answer
  • The subject
  • Variables
  • Data
  • The instrument

Question 8

Question
Which type of quantitative research is often conducted to examine the effects of nursing interventions on patient outcomes?
Answer
  • Descriptive research
  • Correlational research
  • Quasi-experienced research
  • Experimental research

Question 9

Question
Which method of qualitative research was developed by the discipline of anthropology?
Answer
  • Historical
  • Ethnography
  • Grounded thory
  • Phenomenology

Question 10

Question
A nurse is formulating a clinical question in PICO format. What does the letter P represent?
Answer
  • Comparison to another similar treatment
  • Clearly defined, focused literature review
  • Specific identification of the desired outcome
  • Explicit descriptions of the population of interest

Question 11

Question
A group of nurses is planning to investigate the effectiveness of turning immobilized stroke clients more frequently in order to prevent skin break down. The team has begun by formulating a PICO question. Which will be the "O" in the team's PICO question.
Answer
  • The currently used turning schedule
  • Turning clients more frequently
  • Preventing skin bread down
  • Clients who have experienced a stroke

Question 12

Question
Of the following, which best explains the importance of theoretic frameworks?
Answer
  • Theoretic frameworks guide physiologic nursing care.
  • Theoretic frameworks advance nursing knowledge an practice.
  • Theoretic frameworks guide psychosocial nursing care
  • Theoretic frameworks advance the ethical aspects of practice

Question 13

Question
When delivering nursing care, which of the following theories assists nurses in prioritizing the care to be implemented?
Answer
  • Health care systems theory
  • Unitary man theory
  • Maslow's theory
  • Freud's theory

Question 14

Question
The nurse researcher would like to gather data on the attitudes of young adults on spirituality and health care. What is the most effective form of research on this topic?
Answer
  • A Delphi study
  • Qualitative research
  • Quantitative research
  • Methodologic survey

Question 15

Question
What is the best explanation for the way evidence based practice (EBP) has changed the way nursing care is delivered?
Answer
  • Nursing care now incorporates research studies into client care
  • Nurses now have to part in research
  • Nursing care now uses EBP as a means of ensuring quality care
  • Nurses now spend time looking up the best way to give nursing care

Question 16

Question
One of the primary focuses in nursing research is to do what?
Answer
  • Quantify outcomes related to patients
  • Generate knowledge to guide practice
  • Determine outcomes for patients
  • Prevent further disease and death

Question 17

Question
Which of the following represents the basic framework of the research process?
Answer
  • Qualitative data
  • Nursing process
  • Quantitative data
  • Nursing theory

Question 18

Question
Information is collected for analysis in both qualitative and quantitative research. What is the information called?
Answer
  • Interviews
  • Data
  • Surveys
  • Answers

Question 19

Question
What is the central theme of Florence Nightingale's nursing theory?
Answer
  • Nursing is an art
  • Nursing is a therapeutic, interpersonal, and goal oriented process
  • Human are in a constant relationships with stressors in the environment
  • Meeting the personal needs of the client within the environment

Question 20

Question
How would a student nurse describe a conceptual framework?
Answer
  • A foundation for nursing skills and care.
  • A group of interrelated objects that follow a pattern
  • An explanation of nursing and nursing practice
  • A set of phenomena and related abstractions

Question 21

Question
What is the central theme of Hildegard Peplau's nursing theory?
Answer
  • Humans are in a constant relationship with stressors in the environment
  • Nursing is a therapeutic, interpersonal and goal-oriented process
  • Nursing is an art
  • Meeting the personal needs of the client within the environment

Question 22

Question
Who of the following is considered to be the first nursing theorist who conceptualized nursing in terms of manipulating the environment?
Answer
  • Florence Nightingale
  • Sister Callista Roy
  • Dorothea Orem
  • Lydia Hall

Question 23

Question
What is the central theme of Betty Numan's nursing theory?
Answer
  • Humans are in a constant relationship with stressors in the environment
  • Nursing is a therapeutic, interpersonal and goal-oriented process
  • Nursing is an art
  • Meeting the personal needs of the client within the environment

Question 24

Question
Nurses in an ICU noticed that their clients required less intervention for pain when the ICU was quiet. They then asked a researcher to design a study about the effects of noise on the pain levels of hospitalized clients. How does this demonstrate the ultimate goal of expanding the nursing body of knowledge?
Answer
  • Nursing research helps improves ways to promote and maintain health
  • Nursing research explains ongoing medical studies to clients, and asks for participation
  • Nursing research involves client in their care while hospitalized
  • Nursing research draws conclusions about the quality of client care

Question 25

Question
Who is considered to be the first nursing researcher?
Answer
  • Lilian Wald
  • Florence Nightingale
  • Dorethea Dix
  • Clara Barton

Question 26

Question
For which of the following research activities is a phenomenological research method most appropriate?
Answer
  • Explaining how the particular characteristics of the Vietnam War affected the roles of nurses
  • Understanding how a new client copes with a new diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease
  • Attempting to understand non-English speaking immigrant's experiences of being hospital clients
  • Describing the health maintenance activities that are practiced by homeless, intravenous drug users

Question 27

Question
A male client 79 years of age, who is postoperative Day 3 following hip replacement has been approached by a nurse researcher and asked to participate in a research study. This study will test a new rehabilitation strategy. What aspect of the nursing research process addresses the client's understanding of the potential risks and benefits of the study?
Answer
  • Going through the informed consent process with the client
  • Giving the client the opportunity to ask questions about the study
  • Meeting with the hospital's institutional review board (IRB)
  • Obtaining the client's signature on a permission document

Question 28

Question
Which of the following theory emphasizes the relationships between the whole and the parts, and describes how parts function and behave?
Answer
  • General systems theory
  • Nursing theory
  • Adaptation theory
  • Developmental theory

Question 29

Question
The nurse working in research correctly identifies which of the following to be mandatory for the ethical conduction of research in a hospital setting?
Answer
  • The client must directly and personally benefit from the research
  • All interventions must benefit all clients
  • Clients must grant informed consent if they are to participate
  • Descriptive studies are more ethical than experimental studies

Question 30

Question
When looking at a model for evidence-based practice, what is the final step of the process?
Answer
  • Formulating clinical question
  • Searching the literature
  • Appraising evidence
  • Evaluating practice change

Question 31

Question
A nursing student is reading a research article from a nursing journal. The student is aware that the opening paragraph summarizing the article (and the finds of the research) is a good place to start. What part of the article is the nursing student reading?
Answer
  • Review of the literature
  • Results
  • Conclusions
  • Abstract

Question 32

Question
A nursing researcher is examining the cause and effect relationship between the consumption of tap water containing minimal amounts of bleach, and the incidence of cancer in rats. The research is taking place in a laboratory setting. What type of quantitative research is being used based upon this description?
Answer
  • Descriptive research
  • Correlational research
  • Experimental research
  • Quasi-experimental research

Question 33

Question
Following the identification of a researchable problem, what must the nurse do?
Answer
  • Select literature relevant to the problem.
  • Determine a source appropriate to collect data
  • Evaluate the number of ways to collect data
  • Obtain a list of possible outcomes
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