The Sixteenth Century

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A Cultural and Political History of the British Isles Lecture 6: The Sixteenth Century
Anne Schubert
Flashcards by Anne Schubert, updated more than 1 year ago
Anne Schubert
Created by Anne Schubert over 7 years ago
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Where can we find traces of the Renaissance in English culture? 16th Century
New Age: 1492 - seen as single most important date in history; marks watersehd: devides medival and modern history (discovery of America) 1500: almost everyone on engl. Isles was Catholic obsession with France terminated: pol. & econ. resources could be used: new possibilities gradual emerg. of engl. Empire (wealth) 16th Century: Renaissance
Renaissance: Rebirth Victorian "inventor" of Renaissance: Walter Pater (Studies in the History of the Renaissance, 1874) 16th Cent.: Renaissance
Humanism aproaches emergence of print culture (Gutenberg, 1453): cheaper books, wide spread, increasing literacy and faster communication 16th Cent.: Renaissance
- many classical texts already known in the middle Ages, but only in Latin translation: inconcrete! - cultural exchange and transfer increased in speed & intensity - growth of urban culture - latin is language of learning, greek rediscovered (Aristoteles); Italian and French dominant living languages 16th Cent.: Renaissance
beginning: 1453: capture of Constantinoble (rediscovering of ancient writings & art of Romans, more worldly - less religious; gothic architecture changes to more playful one with ornaments) -> last engl. territories lost in France: end of 100 years war 16th Cent.: Renaissance
Describe the impact of the Reformation on England and on the British Isles! 16th Cent.: Reformation
Reformation originated in Germany and Switzerland with Luther, Calvin & Zwingli Protestantism: attempt to reform church from within -> worldlyness & wealthyness: break occured between catholic & protestant church 16th Cent.: Reformation
influence: Luther challanged the papacy outright, good works and catholic sacraments are insufficant, ideas began to penetrate colleges and citiy of London in 1520s, voicing mistrust of Pope and church 16th Cent.: Reformation
Henry VIII & the Break with Rome: Englisch Reformation Henry wanted to divorce 1st wife (Catherine of Aragon), informed Pope - Pope refused -> threw off allegiance to Rome with different acts 16th Cent.: English Reformation
Acts: Act of Appeals (1533): king is sacred emperor Act of Supremacy (1534): king is supreme head of engl. church Act of Succession (1534): succession to throne Act against the Pope's Authority (1536): complete break with Rome & Pope's authority 16th Cent.: English Reformation
Henry VIII married 6 times: 6th wife widowed, others either killed or divorced 16th Cent.: English Reformation
Anglican Church: - in terms of theology similar to catholic church in the beginning: but it couldn't remain that close! - strongest impact: dissolution of all monasteries - everything belonged to king - very different from Continental Protestantism: Henry kept position as head of church 16th Cent.: English Reformation
Henry VIII & the Break with Rome: Legacy extraordinary achievements: enlarged power of monarchy, establ. engl. church, gave church broad look for over 400 years to come, no religious wars, parliament strenghtened HOWEVER: did not adapt protestantism: found a middle way religious struggles later in 17th cent (beheading of a king) 16th Cent.: English Reformation
results of Reformation were very divisive: caused huge internal devisions -> divided catholic Ireland from England and Scottland; cut off the Isles from the rest of Europe -> isolation on all sides produced by anglican church nearest friendly ports for Protestant ships from London: Bremen, Hamburg, London catholic minority was discriminated cultural isolation from 1544 onwards; Scottland was Calvinist Impact of the Reformation on the British Isles
Outline English foreign policy in the 16th century and also consider its role as a rising power! Foreign policy
South of England: dominance of the south towards the rest of England: impact of the Reformation great power of religious groups: conflict between anglican church and puritans growth of London: because of trade & crafts 10x larger than any other engl. city surrounded by rich farming districts power within England
new safety in England: why? - French unlikely to cross channel by force, also the Irish unlikely to cross the Irish sea by force (defeated earlier in 1603 'Problem of Ulster'); Scottland and Wales had no military power heart of England became one of the safest locations in the world England had unusual confidence and a will to expand Foreign Policy
The race for the Globe: Spain: not only enemy in terms of Europe & religion but also a competitor in Caribbean & south America (France and England conquered north america) early 1600: English were no serious competitors for the race for the globe -> slow start by 1500 (100 years after Columbus): no single English colonial venture had taken root -> first successful american colony in 1601 Foreign Policy
Role of Maritime Ventures: England's turn to the ocean came to her rescue: lief-line to outside-world & foreign trade 1600: East India Company was founded: imitation of Dutch-model, principles of mercantilism (fixed entity: export more than import) secure permament place in 1st place Foreign Policy
The Spanish Armada: 1588: great test of Elizabeth I. reign spain sent powerful fleed to England -> fear of catholic rebellion spanish ships mostly destroyed by storms; no battle -> England emerged to primar naval power in world Foreign Policy
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