Geography Paper 1 Public

Geography Paper 1

Emily Pine
Course by Emily Pine, updated more than 1 year ago Contributors

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Hurricanes, Weather in the UK, Climate Change, Tectonic Hazards, Plant Adaptations in Biomes, Deforestation, Coast, Rivers

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Typical names = hurricanes, typhoons and cyclones Force that causes the air in a tropical storm to spin = coriolis force Tropical forms in the tropics Distribution: Hurricanes - occur over the Atlantic Ocean (off the west coast of Africa) Typoons - occur in the Pacific Ocean Cyclones - occur in the Indian Ocean Between the Tropic of Cancer and the Tropic of Capricorn (Tropics) Causes (Conditions): Water that's 70 metres deep or more Water that's 26.5 degrees and above Between 5 and 20 degrees north and south of the equator Area's of low pressure Hurricane Nicole - Bermuda: 2016 Category 4 to category 1
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Gas analysis of ice cores - enable scientists to see the climate from years ago Study of the rings in trees - rings are wider in warm, wet years Glaciers in the Alps are retreating due to the rise in temperature Temperature record Sea level rise
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Drought - lack of rain, increase in temperature Flash Floods - lots of rain in a short amount of time Heat Waves Low pressure = storms  High pressure = clear sky and sun  Case Study - Cockermouth 2009: Causes - 316mm of rainfall in 24hrs, saturated soil causing increased surface fun off, steep gradient, building on flood plains, at a confluence  Impacts - Police man died after bridge fell, 1300 homes destroyed, £28,000 damage to each house, 4 bridges collapsed Responses - People evacuated, 50 by helicopter, £1 million clean up and repairs, flood warnings now issued, flood wall built to prevent water overflow
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Planning: Making evacuation plans if an event is expected Issuing warning systems and information Prediction: Trying to forecast when a volcano will errupt Find the location of earthquakes but not the timings  Seismometer's can pick up the vibrations in the earth's crust Preparation: Earthquake drills Earthquake resistant buildings Education Creating an exclusion zone around volcano Evacuation Communication Monitoring: Volcanoes can be monitored by detecting seismic activity using tilt meters Measuring of gas samples
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Tropical Rainforest: Large fan-shaped leaves that are good at catching sun and water Buttress roots to support tall trees so they can reach sunlight Lianas spread up the tree to get the sunlight Drip tips to shed excess water after heavy rainfall Grow tall to reach the sun light Coniferous Woodland: Thick bark to protect against the cold weather Flexible branches to help cope with heavy snowfall Pine cones to protect seeds Thin, waxy needles to reduce water loss Evergreen nature so they can photosynthesise all the time Dense to create warmth in winter Desert: Long roots to trap water  Short life cycles - can remain dormant until the rain falls again Ability to be succulent - store water
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Causes: Palm Oil Plantations  Malaysia is the world's second largest exporter of palm oil Used in cosmetics and food which = higher demand = jobs = more money In order to grow it, farmers have to deforest large areas of land  Destroys habitats Borneo - A NEE so if they were to stop this them many would lose their jobs and their would be a fall in the economy Forest Fires   Used to remove large areas of trees for palm oil plantations  Peat swamp forests are destroyed Fires grow out of control Logging and Mining Illegal logging takes place so people don't know where it's happening and how much of it is happening Unknown if it's actually happening or not Tourism Lead to deforestation for resorts Ecotourism is being introduced  7% of tourists to Malaysia like ecotourism
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Waves  Constructive - build up the beach, strong swash and weak backwash  Destructive -destroy the beach, weak swash and strong backwash Freeze-thaw Weathering Water enters rocks It freezes Ice melts and goes deeper into the rock Happens many times and the cracks become bigger Biological Weathering Roots enter rocks Roots grow and make them wider Rock breaks away Chemical Weathering Acid in the rain and sea water dissolve the rocks Hydraulic Action - waves smash against the cliff causing it to breakdown Abrasion - pebels grind agaisnt each other and become smooth Attrition - rocks knock against each other causing them to break up Solution - sea water dissolves rocks Solution - dissolved materials are carried in the water Suspension - small rocks flow with the water Saltation - small rocks bounce along the sea bed Traction - larger rocks roll along the sea bed Longshore Drift  Waves approach the sea at an angle due to the prevailing winds Swash carries material onto the beach This repeats in a zig zag formation causing a material build up Deposition - when waves drop materials onto the beach
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Bays - soft rock erodes quicker causing an inlet on the coast Headland - hard rock erodes slowly so it's left  Wave Cut Platform - constant tide erodes the headland away leaving an indent Sea attacks base = wave cut notch Cliff collapses = wave cut platform  Cliff retreats Cave, arch, stack, stump Destructive waves hit the headland causing the rocks to erode away, forming a cave Other processes happen and cause the cave to widen over time, forming an arch Waves hit the arch and small pieces of the rocks hit it causing cracks to form  Gravity acts on the arch and it falls away, forming a stack Overtime, the stack erodes away leaving a stump Beaches - Made of eroded material that has been transported and deposited Spits Sediment is carried by longshore drift Where there's a change in shape, deposition happens, forming the spit Bars - a spit that's grown across the bay, joining to two headlands
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Hard Engineering  Sea walls - concrete walls that are placed (expensive but effective) Rock armour - boulders at the bottom of cliffs to get most of the impact (expensive to transport but cheaper than sea wall) Groynes - wooden or rock structures built at an angle to the sea (unattractive but builds beaches Soft Engineering Beach Nourishment - placement of sand onto beach to build it up (constant replacement but blends with existing beach)
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Same erosion processes as coast Same transportation as coast Watershed - area of high land forming the edge of a river basin Source - where the river begins Mouth - where a river meets the sea Confluence - where two rivers meet Tributary - small river or stream that joins a larger river Channel - where the river flows Long Profile - view of river from source to mouth - upper course, middle course, lower course Cross Profile - cross section of a channel or valley Vertical Erosion - eroded downward Lateral Erosion - eroded lateraly
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Waterfall - sudden drop on river course  Soft rock gets eroded quicker than hard rock creating a step Hard rock forms an overhang Abrasion and hydraulic action cause a plunge pool An increase in size causes the overhang to collapse, leaving a waterfall Meanders  Rivers flow round a bend and the water pushes on the outside Lateral erosion on the bend causes a river cliff Water on the inside is slower so deposits material Causes bends in the river Oxbow Lake Erosion makes a narrow neck During floods, the river takes the shortest course, through the neck Creates a new straighter river course Leaves a cut off section = oxbow lake Levees - in the lower course  Sediment in the water gets deposited into the flood plains when there's a flood Builds up over time
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Hard Engineering Dams - traps water which then builds up (expensive but can produce electricity) River Straightening - speeds the flow of water (flood risk but higher volume of water can be held) Soft Engineering Flood Warnings and Preparation
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