Geography Paper 2 Public

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Urbanisation, Environmental issues, Mumbai, Urban Growth in UK, Commuting, Rural-Urban Fringe, HDI, Physical Factors and Development Aid, TNC and QOL in Malaysia, Deindustrialisation, Food Production, Fossil Fuels

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People are moving from rural areas to urban areas as there's a better quality of life Increase in this causing an increase in the number of people living in urban areas More people in urban areas = increase in jobs in the service sector
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Water pollution  No collection of waste - could be toxic Air pollution Sewage waste Congestion = increased greenhouse gasses Increase in food production = more greenhouse gases released  More electricity used = lack of resources and increase in greenhouse gasses Animal populations destroyed through toxic substances and loss of food Flash flooding
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Causes for the management: Toilet in the street, leading to an increase in disease One of the largest slums in India Water pipe is built on an old rubbish tip causing poor sanitation  Standpipes come on a 5:30 for 2 hours Rats Sewage in the water Positives of the management: Replacement with new flats that can house many people Building upwards 14 story apartments to house the people in the slum Small scale, local improvements are being made to keep the people happy Negatives of the management: People don't want to move  Loss of businesses - 85% of people have a job in the slum or work locally  Loss in the recycling industry as the main waste disposal place is there - 80% of plastic gets recycled here Only those who lived there since 2000 can be relocated causing many to become homeless
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Causes: Better quality of life in urban areas Better development opportunities Better resources  Opportunities: Better health care and services Better resources e.g. clean water and electricity Redevelopment opportunities  Development of transport systems for commuters  Increase in green spaces as it's more recognised by planners Challenges: Decrease in wealth Deprived areas = less access to health care, education and jobs Rural-urban fringe is under pressure due to business parks and large shopping centers  Regeneration of Stratford: Why regeneration? Lack of sanitation  Lack of achievement in schools Poverty Unemployment  Low income  Pros - Better employment  Tube and bus connections  Better sanitation  Created 3000 jobs Better facilities  Cons -  Expensive Created pollution
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Increases pollution  Many have moved out of urban areas for the cheaper housing prices in rural areas, meaning they have to commute Crossrail - provides transport links from east to west London Buses Causes traffic congestion  London has a variety of methods for commuting into the city - taxi, bus train, bike - reduced the use of car
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Where urban area meets the countryside Area of transition where there's a mix of urban and rural land use  Factories use the rural-urban fringe because: Land is cheaper More space to expand Less traffic and pollution  Good transport links  Nice environment  Impacts of factories locating on it: Causes urban sprawl Increased pollution  Congestion
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HDI

HDI = Human Development Index Calculated using life expectancy, education level and income per head  0 = least developed 1 = most developed  Measure of development
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Climate - The Sahel in Africa suffers from a lack of rainfall meaning droughts are common This causes a lack of crop growth Certain diseases thrive in the climate Natural Hazards - Floods, drought and tectonic activity limits growth Destroys buildings and agriculture areas Country's may need help to restore themselves from this Landlocked Countries - 15 countries in Africa are landlocked More difficult to trade as goods have to be transported through other countries Difficult for them to get the most out of their trade as they have to spend money on the transport Zambia Natural Resources - Minerals, gas and oil help improve a countries development Historical Development -  Colonialism hinders development as countries stay in the same state as before Political - Governments can be poor and not develop efficiently
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Aid

Money or resources that's given from one country to another as a source of help (e.g. food, doctors) The money is spent on development projects (e.g. constructing schools to help literacy rate, building dams and wells to improve water etc.) Can sometimes be wasted by corrupted governments When the money runs out, the projects stop if there isn't enough local knowledge and support
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TNC's = Trans National Corporations Companies that are located or produce products in more than one country (e.g. Panasonic) Located in poorer countries as labour is cheaper and there are fewer environmental regulations, increasing profit Improve development through passing on skills to the people there Offices and headquarters are located in richer countries Advantages: Create jobs Poorer countries get more reliable income Spend money to improve local infrastructure New technology and skill are passed on to the workers Disadvantages: Employees in the poorer countries may be paid less Have to work longer hours in poor conditions  Profits go back to the developed country Jobs created aren't secure  Have little breaks and no toilet breaks
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Fewer jobs are available in manufacturing and heavy industries  Were once a primary source of employment and income for the UK Decline in the manufacturing industry and growth in the tertiary industry Happens because: Machines replace people Other countries make things cheaper Lack of investment
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Types of food for demand has changed Since the 1960s there's been a growing demand for seasonal food all year round Irrigation improves crop growth as it makes dry areas more productive in order to increase the yeild Hydroponics grows plants without soil - reduced risk of disease and pests but is very expensive Biotechnology involves genetically engineering crops in order to improve production - higher yield, resistant against disease and pests
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Fossil fuels cause pollution to water and the air Coal and oil release sulphur dioxide which causes respiratory problems and acid rain Add to the global warming as carbon dioxide is released  When burned, they contribute to global warming due to greenhouse gasses
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