Chapter 3

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Flashcards by vikkimatthews, updated more than 1 year ago
vikkimatthews
Created by vikkimatthews about 8 years ago
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Flashcards on Chapter 3, created by vikkimatthews on 05/23/2013.

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Chapter 3 Behaviourism Tradition that states psychology should be a science of behaviour without considering mental states as they cannot be observed. Studies non-human animals with a view to generalising their behaviour to other species. Watson-Learning builds on innate factors & human behaviour is controlled by environmental factors. Important as offers viable explanations for behaviours & has led to practical uses in behaviour modification.
Chapter 3 Sociocultural Perspective Proposes that learning involves the use of cultural,physical or psychological tools. Learning is embedded in interpersonal relationships that take place within social & cultural systems. Mercer-Observation study-Nature of talk;shows how children jointly construct understanding together in the way they talk. Important as offers alternative view to behaviourist & cognitive perspectives & aids understanding of different ways of learning.
Chapter 3 Operant Conditioning Form of instrumental conditioning traditionally studied using a Skinner box. Skinner-Rats/pidgeons are places placed in the box and rewarded with a food pellet when they press lever. Animal emits behaviour that effects its environment. Desired behaviour results in reward/punishment and a change in the frequency of that behaviour. Important as research tool into behaviour modification.
Chapter 3 Classical Conditioning Form of learning in behaviourist perspective that modifies behaviour by teaching the subject to respond in a desired manner. Pavlov-Neutral stimulus (Bell) was paired with unconditional stimulus(Food) which resulted in unconditioned response(salivation). Pairing the bell & food repeatedly transforms the bell into a conditioned stimulus that alone triggers conditional response of salivation. Important as contributes to understanding of learning & how this occurs with conscious intent.
Chapter 3 Category Learning Cognitive perspective that learning occurs when people come to understand that certain objects & entities belong together in a particular category. Bruner-Hypothesis testing-People use different strategies to category learn. Use prior knowledge about certain attributes & consider only those categories that make sense. Important as suggests there could be different aspects to learning.
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