Week 1 Study Guide

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Part 1 Study Guide

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Groups of people interested in social deviance 1. People with career plans that include law or law enforcement 2. Special affinity for the subject of deviance based on personal experience 3. Because the topic is different and exciting 4. People that are interested in how social norms are constructed
Sources of Data 1. Survey Research 2. Experimental design 3. Historical methods 4. Official statistics 5. Field research
3 Perspectives of how to define deviance 1. Absolutist perspective 2. Relativist perspective 3. Social power perspective
Absolutist persepctive -Simple -What is deviant and what isn't
Relativist perspective -In the eye of the beholder rather than in the act itself -May vary by time and place
Social power perspective -The influence that powerful groups and classes have in creating and applying laws -Unequal power in society
Deviance Violations of social norms
Three types of norms 1. Folkways 2. mores 3. laws
Folkways Simple everyday norms based on custom, tradition, or etiquette example: Standards of dress, demeanor, physical closeness to or distance from others
Mores Norms based on broad societal morals whose infraction would generate more serious social condemnation example: Interracial marriage, illegitimate childbearing, drug addiction
Laws Strongest norms, supported by codified social sanctions example: traffic citations, speeding
ABC's of deviance Attitudes Behaviors Conditions
Ascribed Deviant Status Based on conditions a person acquires from birth
Achieved deviant status Earned the deviant label through something they have done
Three categories of S's The ways deviance might be perceived and interpreted -sin -sick -selected
Negative Deviance Underconformity or nonconformity that results in negative reactions
Rate Busting Over-conformity that is negatively evaluated
Deviance admiration Underconformity or nonconformity that is positively appraised by the collectivity
Positive Deviance Overconformity that receives positive reactions
Cultural relativists Cultural relativists urge us to adapt to the changes of our times, which they define as "progress" rather than mere change whose inevitability is not assured.
Crime Crime as a legal definition of human conduct is created by agents of the dominant class in a politically organized society.
Formulating definitions of crime Definitions of crime are composed of behaviors that conflict with the interests of the dominant class.
Applying definitions of crime Definitions of crime are applied by the class that has the power to shape the enforcement and admiration of criminal law.
How behavior patterns develop in relation to definitions of crime Behavior patterns are structured in relation to definitions of crime and within this contest people engage in actions that have relative probabilities of being defined as criminal.
Constructing an ideology of crime An ideology of crime is constructed and diffused by the dominant class to secure its hegemony.
Investigation of crime One of the most concrete ways by which an ideology of crime is formed and transmitted
Constructing the social reality of crime The social reality of crime is constructed by the formulation and application of definitions of crime, the development of behavior patterns in relation to these definitions, and the construction of an ideology of crime.
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