Starch Glycogen and Cellulose

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Flashcards by , created about 6 years ago

AS Biology2 (The Variety of Life) Flashcards on Starch Glycogen and Cellulose, created by sammi_taylor01 on 05/28/2013.

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Question Answer
Starch, glycogen and cellulose are all example of.. polysaccharides, therefore carbohydrates
Where is starch found and as what? Starch is found in plants as small grains.
Why is starch important? It forms an important component of food and is a major energy source for most diets.
What is starch made up of? How are these joined? alpha glucose monomers, joined by glycosidic bonds in a condensation reaction.
How is starch adapted for being inside the cell? It's an unbranched chain that is highly coiled and very compact. This allows for a large volume to be stored in a small place.
Some facts of starch include.. It's insoluble, therefore has no effect on water potential/osmosis. As it is insoluble, it does not easily diffuse out of cells. It can be broken down via hydrolysis into alpha-glucose.
Why is starch being broken down into alpha glucose an advantage? It is more easily transported round the body and used for respiration.
Name a polysaccharide that is always found in animal cells? Glycogen
Glycogen is similar in structure to starch but.. has shorter chains that are more branched.
Where is glycogen stored in and how is it stored in animals? Stored as small granules mainly in the muscle and liver.
Due to glycogen having shorter chains than starch, it means.. it's more readily hydrolysed into alpha glucose.
What monomer is cellulose made out of? Beta glucose.
Where is cellulose found? In plant cell walls providing rigidity for the cell.
What is unique to cellulose? In order for the beta glucose to form glycosidic links, it must be rotated 180degrees compared to its neighbour.
How would you describe cellulose's chain? straight an unbranched.
What type of bonds are in cellulose and how? hydrogen bonds, form cross-linkages between the adjacent chains. The sheer number of hydrogen bonds adds to the strength of the molecule.
What does the cellulose cell wall prevent within the cell? Prevents the cell from bursting as it takes up water via osmosis.
What does the cellulose cell wall cause the plant cells to be? turgid, pushing against one another so it becomes semi-rigid.