Restless Earth

Flashcards by , created about 6 years ago

GCSE Geography Flashcards on Restless Earth, created by rachibabes101 on 05/29/2013.

Created by rachibabes101 about 6 years ago
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Question Answer
Crater Created after an eruption blows the top off a volcano
Magma V lava Magma is molten rock beneath the earth, it is called lava when it reaches the eaths surface, when it cools it forms rock
Pyroclastic flow Mixture of hot steam, ash, rock and dust, which rolls down the side of a volcano at high speeds
Lahar If the ash and mud from a volcanic eruption mix with rain water or melting snow, fast moving mudflows are created called lahars.
Tsunami A special type of wave where the entire depth of the ocean is set in motion, often by an earthquake which displaces the water above it and creates a huge wave
Super volcano Colossal volcano that erupts at least 1,000km3 of material
Caldera The huge depression that marks the collapse of the magma chamber
Fissures Extended openings along a line of weakness that allow magma to escape
Geothermal Water that is heated beneath the ground, which comes to the surface in a variety of ways
Geyser A geothermal feature - water erupts into the air under pressure
Hot spot A section of the earths crust where plumes of magma rise, weakening the crust
Magma chamber A collection of magma inside the earth below the volcano
Vent Main outlet for magma to escape
Secondary vents Smaller outlets through which magma escapes
Short term response Ability to recover immediately after an earthquake, eg. rescuing people, dealing with injuries, providing shelter food+water, dealing with leaking gas and electricity cables
Long term response Designing earthquake proof buildings, homes, factories, rebuilding the city, long term loans off other countries to help rebuild, medical facilities
Core Centre of the earth
Mantle Contains magma which moves slowly. Convection currents occur here which causes plates to move
Crust Outer layer of the earth. Divided into slabs called tectonic plates
Oceanic crust Newer - less than 200 million years Denser Can sink Can be renewed and destroyed in the mantle
Continental Crust Older - over 200 million Less dense Cant sink Cant be renewed or destroyed in the mantle
Earthquake Sudden and violent shaking of the earth, sometimes causing great destruction, as a result of movements within the earths crust
Earth tremor A small earthquake, vibration through the earths crust
After shock A smaller earthquake following the main shock of a large one
Fault line A line on a rock surface or ground that traces a geological fault
Focus The point beneath the earths surface where rock breaks under stress and the plates shift
Epicentre The point on the earths surface directly above the focus of an earthquake
Richter scale Numerical scale expressing magnitude of an earthquake
Seismometer Instruments that measure movements of the ground, including those of seismic waves generated by earthquakes
Seismograph An instrument that measures and records details of earthquakes such as force and duration
Magnitude A measure of the amount of energy that is released during an earthquake
The 3 P's policy Predict, prepare, protect