LING 2371 Final Exam (Researchers)

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How the significance of these researchers help us understand (and prove) the world around us linguistically and socially
Gia  Phan
Flashcards by Gia Phan, updated more than 1 year ago
Gia  Phan
Created by Gia Phan over 6 years ago
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Question Answer
Klofstad et al. (2014) Ex
Gaudio (1994) Study on “sounding gay” - Study asked judges to evaluate various characteristics including orientation - Found strong negative correlation between judgments of masculinity and gayness à more masculine sounding men were perceived as less gay sounding and vice versa - Unable to isolate specific linguistic feature that cued perception of gender/sexuality to listeners
Smith, Jacobs, & Rogers (2003) Found context the effect for the perception of homosexuality - Speakers read a scientific passage, a dramatic passage, and engaged in spontaneous conversation - Greater proportion of gay and feminine sounding judgments for the scientific passage than either other context - Findings interpreted as evidence of a stereotypical association between gay men and ‘formality’ or ‘prestige’ à men speaking in more formal contexts more likely to be perceived as feminine/gay than
Moonwomon (1985) Listened to 6 straight & 6 lesbian women - White, middle & working class, different regions, 3 Jewish - Listeners were asked questions about speakers’ identities & voice characteristics - Correctly identified lesbians ~50% of the time - Correctly identified Jewish speakers ~50% of the time - Moonwomon says listeners unwilling to acknowledge lesbian presence; lesbian stereotyping based more on nonspeech behavior
Waksler (2001) Recordings from 12 lesbians and 12 straight women - Asked to explain the plot of The Wizard of Oz without singing or acting out parts - No significant difference between pitch range of lesbians and straight women - Stereotypes of lesbian speech are not supported by
Decena (2012) Sexual orientation and gender identity as performative: desire to establish and sustain networks as long as membership in the group did not threaten investments in normative masculinity
Baugh Baugh and colleagues designed experiment to determine how widespread language discrimination was - Called landlords using either SAE, AAVE, or Chicano - Found that the same landlords less willing to rent to a caller w/ noticeable AAVE or ChE dialect - Follow up study confirmed that 70% of the time, listeners able to identify race, ethnicity, and sex on the basis of an utterance less than a second long - Came to 4 clear, statistically significant conclusions: 1. Dialect: based discrimination takes place 2. Ethnic group affiliation is recoverable from speech 3. Very little speech is needed to discriminate between dialects 4. Some phonetic correlates or markers of dialects are recoverable from a very small amount of
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