Grade 6 social science cycle test August 2014

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mantha
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Flashcards on Grade 6 social science cycle test August 2014, created by mantha on 08/22/2014.

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Question Answer
Climate and weather Climate= average weather conditions in an area over a long period of time eg winter / summer Weather= the temperature, rainfall, wind on a particular day
Climatic conditions When we look at areas we see that large areas experience same average conditions and that a type of climatic condition is experienced People influenced by climate when they decide where to live - don't want to live where it is too hot or too cold Resources also influence where people live
How much of the earth do people occupy 15%
Factors that influence climate Latitude of a place Altitude above sea level influence of ocean currents/oceans Relief
Factors that influence climate Latitude of a place hottest climates are usually places closest to the equator further we move from the equator the colder it becomes at 12:00 suns rays are directly overhead, are more concentrated and temperatures rise higher further north and south rays fall at an angle and are spread over a larger area so not so concentrated
Factors affecting climate. Latitude or distance from the equator. Temperatures drop the further an area is from the equator due to the curvature of the earth. In areas closer to the poles, sunlight has a larger area of atmosphere to pass through and the sun is at a lower angle in the sky.
reason for higher downpour at equator high temperatures cause high evaporation which causes higher downpour
factors that influence climate Altitude above sea level earth absorbs the sun's rays, converts them to heat and radiates them again closer we are to the source of radiation the hotter it is and the further we are from the source the colder it is always cold on tops of mountains with highest peaks covered with snow
Altitude or height above sea level Locations at a higher altitude have colder temperatures. Temperature usually decreases by 1°C for every 100 metres in altitude.
factors that influence climate influence of ocean currents/oceans temperatures of oceans influence the land temperature winds blow hot or cool air above the hot or cool ocean towards the land and increase or reduce the land temperatures winds that blow from polar regions bring cold air into the land
factors that influence climate influence of ocean currents/oceans water able to retain heat better than the land but takes longer to heat during the day land reaches higher temperatures than water during day during the night the land cools faster than the sea so sea has a warm influence on the land
factors that influence climate influence of ocean currents/oceans areas that have large coast lines/ large water masses have a moderate temperature with the water cooling/heating at moderate temperatures areas with a warm sea current have more evaporation and therefore higher precipitation in those areas
weather the temperature, rainfall and wind on a particular day
climate what the weather is like in an area over a long time
climate we look at temperature and rainfall temperature - how hot, mild or cold it is rainfall - how much it rains - if it is dry or wet
hot, mild, cold climates hot = above 25 degrees often as hot as 35 highest recorded temp 57 degrees celcius mild = not too high or too low temperatures between 10 and 30 degrees cold = low for most of the year as low as -25 degrees lowest recorded temp -89 degrees celcius
hemispheres and climate January northern hemisphere= winter and southern hemisphere = summer July northern hemisphere = summer and southern hemisphere= winter
wet and dry areas wet areas get a lot of rain = above 1000mm dry areas get little or no rain = less than 250mm
vegetation - 5 main biomes Forest= 38% Savannah = 10% Grassland = 13% Desert = 19% Tundra = 11%
interaction between plants, animals, soil and climate within a demarcated area develops into an ecological system = ecosystem -a election of plants and animals in their own environment largest ecosystems developed on earth known as BIOMES - houses similar plants and animals and relates to the way climate zones are distributed
fauna flora fauna=animals flora= plants
which biome covers the largest area forest
which biome covers the smallest area savannah
tropical rainforests = tropical,deciduous,coniferous dominated by large tree species dense canopy grow so close that sunlight doesn't penetrate ground most important = tropical rainforest situated close to equator hot all year round very high rainfall most trees are broadleaf, evergreen trees palms and tree ferns found here
temperate rain forests= deciduous forests oak, walnut, poplar trees shed leaves during winter evergreen/coniferous forests found in regions with rain throughout the year pine trees with pine cones= coniferous trees many different insects, reptiles,spiders,birds live in these forests deciuous and temperate forests mostly found in densely populated regions (N America, Europe & Asia) people dependent on forests for shelter, food, wood, houses, weapons, energy
lungs of our planet = tropical rain forests tropical rain forests = a forest that grows in an area that is hot and wet for most of the year HUMIS= when the air in an area feels hot and wet
most of worlds rain forests occur along the equator biggest rain forests occur in central and south America, central and west Africa and south east Asia
world's areas with high annual rainfall are same as location of world's tropical rain forests
effect of densely populated areas on natural forests deplete resources - deforestation = lack of habitat for animals, insects, birds affects ecosystems pollution increases - tropical rain forests the lungs of our earth
forest biomes = 3 types Coniferous Deciduous Rain Deciduous=oak walnut, poplar trees, shed leaves during winter season, rain throughout year, North America, Europe, Asia, many different insects, birds, spiders, reptiles Coniferous = pine trees and cones found here, adapted to long cold winters and short summers downward sloping leaves makes it easy for snow to slide off branches are supple so weight of snow does not break them thick bark protects against cold temperatures needles waxy reduces evaporation snow slides off needles easily
Coniferous biome uncontrolled mining = open cast mining, drilling for oil and infrastructure (roads and towns) have damaged this natural biome occurs between 50 degrees north and 70 degrees north
rain forest biome Emergents= the tallest trees Canopy = tree tops block out a lot of sunlight Understory = smaller trees and shrubs Forest floor = the lowest layer
tropical forest parrots in upper layers of rainforests poison dart frogs Lianas= creepers wrap around tall trees caching up to sunlight
effects of deforestation = the clearing of forest land for example by logging= cutting down of trees to use their wood also from mining, farming, road building trees cool the air = NO trees to cool the air loss of homes for animals loss of plants and animals flooding = loss of homes for people roots keep water in the soil= NO roots to keep water in the soil flooding
why are tropical rain forests so important? oxygen homes for animals, insects, birds food wood/fuel medicine
Coniferous forests short summers long cold winters up sides of mountains tall narrow trees shrubs and herbs grow close to ground half frozen forests animals hibernate, migrate or store food for winter trees have cones instead of flowers needle like leaves protects against cold climate needles grow downwards snow slides off cover about 15% of Earth's land surface world's largest forests fewer animals and plants often found where there are lakes able to grow higher up mountain sides largest ones found in north Canada, Scandinavia & Siberia grow in climates where summers short and winters long with heavy snowfall
Coniferous forests animals egg's: moose - special coat to keep it warm grey owl feeds on rodents- rats/mice dives through snow to catch its prey Russian flying squirrel - lives in trees that grow next to rivers webbed feet and wrists makes flying easier between branches looking for food
coniferous forests how do the following survive cold climate: coniferous tree spruce tree great grey owl moose Coniferous tree:have cones instead of flowers, thin, needle-like leaves instead of large leaves helps them survive cold climate Spruce tree: Branches grow downwards which stops the branches breaking in heavy snow and snow slides off easily moose: has special coat to keep it warm grey owl: feeds on rodents, hardly makes a sound as it flies and is able to dive through snow to catch its prey
coniferous forests: why are there few farms in coniferous forest areas what two things would people do to earn money why are these dangerous for the environment have long winters with snow and poor soil so few farms to grow food people hunt and trap animals and sell fur to make a living as well as log trees wildlife are under thread because of hunting, affects the ecosystems of the forests, people clearing forests for building factories, roads and houses, ski slopes destroys the animals' habitat, natural vegetation and food for the animals is destroyed
deforestation what is the worst effect? explain your answer loss of biodiversity - variety of insects, animals and birds lose their food and shelter climate change because the trees release moisture into the air and this stoops, the trees stop the sunlight from reaching the soil and earn they are no longer there the sun dries the soil out killing plants, animals that need moist cool soil dry soil is easily eroded so harder to grow crops too
from the list place each plant/animal into a specific biome and say how it is suited to that climate: Liana vines Macaw parrot Camel Barrel Cactus Moose Spruce trees Liana vines - rain forest - rooted in the soil and use trees to climb to the canopy to get access to sunlight Macaw parrot - rain forest - coloring is suited to life in rain forests, with their green canopies and colorful fruits and flowers, have large, powerful beaks easily crack nuts and seeds, dry, scaly tongues have a bone inside them that helps them tap into fruits Camel - desert- stores fat in its hump, can go without water for 3-4 days, tough mouth allows it to eat thorny desert plants Barrel Cactus - has spikes to protect it from being eaten, stores water in stems Moose - Coniferous forest - special coat to keep it warm during the long cold winter Spruce trees - Coniferous forest - branches grow downwards - snow fall off so don't break under the weight
Macaw parrot Liana vine
Camel Barrel cactus
moose spruce trees
migrate move to live in a different area for a certain season
hot desert biome area of land where very little rain falls and where temperatures are high dry areas less than 250mm of rain a year hot deserts and cold deserts
hot deserts: Sahara - North Africa Kalahari - Southern Africa Australian - Australia Mojave - North America Arabian - Middle East That - India and Pakistan Atacama - South America
Climate temperatures usually between 20-25 degrees celcius can be as high as 50 degrees nights can be very cold hot deserts have little or no rainfall for many months
natural vegetation in hot desert few plants grow because very little rainfall plants adapted - some have long roots that search for water, some store water in their stem or leaves, some have spikes or poisons to protect themselves from being eaten
wildlife in hot desert animals that live in the desert have found ways to escape shot sun- dig holes in the ground Meerkats - Kalahari desert - long claws help them dig for insects to eat live in groups to warm each other of dangers poisons from snakes and scorpions can't harm them Camel -Arabian desert - stores fat in its hump,can go without water for 3-4 days, tough mouth allows it to eat thorny plants
plants in semi deserts and deserts xerophytes - well adapted to dry conditions
semi desert / desert climate low annual rainfall < 250mm a year unreliable precipitation (varies from year to year) low moisture content of the atmosphere high evaporation extreme daily fluctuations in temperature nights cold because of fast cooling when sun sets
people living in deserts = nomadic = move from place to place in search of water and grazing for animals eg: Aboriginal people in Australian Desert - hunted desert animals and art certain desert plants, followed the rain, always carried hunting and gathering tools with them - when Europeans settlers arrived 200 years ago Aboriginals had to change their way of life
oasis place in a desert where water is permanently found people settle nearby can grow crops like date, palm, olives and figs date palm is useful - fruit can be eaten, trunk provides wood leaves can be made into rope used for the roofs of buildings
discuss how if you are living in a hot desert you get: water food shelter water - if you are not living next to an oasis where water is always found and wells can be dug close to the water, then you can get water that is stored in the stems of cactus, succulents that grow in desserts food around an oasis is easier to grow - date palms, figs, olives but in the desert you can eat reptiles and insects, desert animals can be hunted or the fruit/ leaves of cactus or succulent plants shelter - next to an oasis you could build a mud house using the leaves of the date palm for the roof or tents would be used as they are good for the nomadic way of life
Savannah Biome - tropical grasslands transitional region between wet tropical rain forests and dry desert/semi desert regions covers large areas of Africa and South America, also found in Australia, Central America and South-East Asia
Savannah Grasslands annual rainfall 750-1500mm summer rainfall high evaporation rainfall not dependable and regular droughts occur winters dry with warm days and cold nights landscape - parklike with trees and tall growing grasses
Savannah grasslands baobab, mopani, acasia and umbrella shaped thorn trees Eucalyptus in Australia = well know tree fires often rage to kill of weaker trees and to make sure there is sufficient space for grasses to grow Predators - lion, cheetah, leopard - huge herds of grazing animals - UNGULATE FAUNA - zebras, antelope, giraffes, wildebeest occur here (ungulate-hooved)
temperate grasslands = grasslands biome found in regions that form a transition between warm and cold areas - normally found in interiors of continents climate referred to as continental - cool and temperate - cool to cold winters and warm summers precipitation 300-500mm per year
temperate grasslands the Prairies - North America the Steppes - Asia and Europe the Pampas - South America the Downlands - Australia the Veld - South Africa IN South Africa the HIGHVELD is typical of the grassland biome
vegetation trees sensitive to frost so are restricted to riverbeds exotic trees - Eucalyptus and pine which were introduced by people do well in this area]main type of vegetation in South Africa is the perennial red grass
temperate grasslands large parts of this biome have been altered through intervention of people - ploughed up for mealie and wheat farming used for grazing overgrazing = deterioration of soil and erosion follows original wildlife have vanished parts in SA have been destroyed by mining and urban development
tundra and ice fields biome tundra occurs north of 65 degrees north extends around northern arctic ocean,in Alaska, Greenland, Canada and Iceland Southern Hemisphere = Terra del Feugo at tip of South America
tundra and ice fields biome climate = extreme cold winter months =temperatures in winter far below freezing, snowstorms with icy winds, nothing grows, plants dormant while the ground is frozen Summer = temperature may get to 10 degrees only lasts 3-4 months, ice melts and flooding and marshes result rainfall is low 250mm per year, rate of evaporation low so water does not drain
tundra and ice fields biome vegetation - adapted to low temperatures plants grow quickly, come to life in summer- mosses, lichens, ferns, low shrubs, grass and flowering plants best known animals = reindeer, wolves, bears Area is sparsely populated - Eskimos of Greenland - nomadic people that inhabit Tundra
Ice deserts/ polar deserts uninhabitable areas comprise
answer the following: has one season throughout the year word for vegetation layer above the understory not suitable for farming grassland found in South Africa tropical rainforest flora canopy tundra veld
answer the following: 10m long roots hooved animals tropical grassland desert vegetation clearing of forest land 19% of land surface uninhabitable Joshua tree ungulate fauna savannah creosote bush deforestation desert biome Antarctica
what people trade people trade two types of goods raw materials manufactured goods people also trade work=labour= when people sell their labour they sell their skills and time
raw materials resources that come directly from nature e.g. coal
manufactured goods things made in factories such as radios, tv's
primary products = raw materials
name the two raw materials pictured name places in SA where these are mined suggest uses for these raw materials iron ore and coal iron ore used to make steel coal used to produce electricity in coal power stations iron ore - Northern Cape coal - Mpumalanga
imports goods that are bought from other countries
exports goods that are sold to other countries
trade selling and receiving of goods
South Africa and trade SA has many useful natural resources like diamonds, gold, iron climate in SA ideal for growing different kinds of fruit for export SA imports goods like computers, machines and special medicines that it doesn't make locally
SA exports and imports SA exports- iron, gold, tourism, fruit, car parts SA imports - oil, electrical goods, factory machines, medicines
SA trades with North America, Asia- China, most countries in Europe and the middle east three mineral resources exported from SA gold, iron, platinum
factories buildings where people use tools and machines to make things
secondary products things that have been made in factories - another word for manufactured goods
skills something you can do - e.g. make furniture from wood
manufactured goods made in factories secondary products furniture, cars, phones, clothing, computers, televisions
skills and services skills - things people can do - carpenter needs woodworking skills, musicians need musical skills services - doctors, teachers, cleaners, government ministers = provide services
fair trade vs unfair trade - when poor countries get low prices for their raw materials this causes other problems unfair trade= farmers and miners get low wages, children are forced to work, poor people do not have enough money for basic needs people do not develop skills governments of poor countries can't provide services and skills trading because they do not collect enough in taxes
when trade is fair people are able to earn enough money to live and improve their lives when trade is fair- traders pair a fair price for crops workers are paid fair wages no children are allowed to work - they go to school traders make sure that some money goes towards health care and education working conditions are safe and healthy workers form companies so that the have more control over prices and wages
exploitation to treat people in a selfish and unfair way
examples of exploitation are low wages long working hours unhealthy and dangerous workplaces child workers no sick leave
Answer the following: Trade takes place when people ________ goods Exports leave a country, __________enter a country ____________ are resources that have not yet changed People use ____________ to make manufactured goods exchange imports raw materials primary products
two important South african primary products are ___________ people who do not make things provide ________, such as nurses and teachers poor countries sell their exports at ______ and buy their imports at high prices iron ore and coal services low prices
name two countries that are important trading partners of South Africa North America China
National symbols symbol=a picture or item that stands for something else or that has a special meaning motto = phrase or sentence describing what an organisation or country aims for or believes in symbols and South Africa countries have different symbols to show different things about the country help people feel they belong together and should have pride in their country 1994 democratic South Africa needed NEW symbols to reflect the NEW South Africa include coat of arms, national flag and national anthem
need to know meanings of: rising sun secretary bird protea san people shield ears of wheat spear and knobkerrie elephant tusks MOTTO
MOTTO IKE E: /XARRA //KE DIVERSE PEOPLE UNITE motto = phrase or sentence describing what our country aims for or believes in
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