GCSE AQA Biology - Unit 1

James Jolliffe
Flashcards by , created over 4 years ago

The Name of the Biologist - A prophecy is coming true. The Eleventh Biologist is summoned to Brenzalore where it was said he would fall. But what does the alleged site of his final battle have to do with the mystery of Blara — or is it Bloswin — Bloswald? Can the Biolinoster Gang help him avoid his apparent destiny? And most of all...Biologist who?

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James Jolliffe
Created by James Jolliffe over 4 years ago
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Question Answer
What is a person if their diet is unbalanced? Malnourished
What is the Metabolic Rate? The rate at which all chemical reactions take place within the body
Where is Cholesterol made? In the Liver
What two factors affect the amount of cholesterol in your blood? Your Diet Inherited factors
What are Microorganisms that cause infectious diseases called? Pathogens
How do White Blood Cells defend against disease? - Ingest Pathogens - Produce antitoxins to neutralise toxins from pathogens - produce antibodies to destroy particular pathogens
How does a vaccination defend you from a disease? 1. Small amounts of an inactive or dead pathogen are injected into the body 2.Your white blood cells produce antibodies to destroy the pathogen 3. You then have an acquired immunity
Who was Semmelweiss? Doctor, from 1840s, who got doctors to wash their hands
How do antibiotic-resistant strains of pathogens occur? 1. A pathogen mutates, producing a new strain 2. The new strain may be resistant to antibiotics 3. The new resistant strain spreads rapidly because we are not immune to it
What are the steps in the nervous system? Receptor --> Sensory Neurone --> Relay Neurone --> Brain and/or Spinal cord --> Motor Neurone --> Effector
What is the gap between neurones called? Synapse
What part of the body acts as the co-ordinator in a reflex action? The Spinal Cord
To keep your internal environment relatively constant, what must your body control? - Temperature (37°C for enzymes) - Water Content - Ion Content - Blood sugar
What are Hormones produced by? Glands
In the menstrual cycle, what hormones are involved? Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) from the pituitary gland Oestrogen from the ovaries Luteinising hormone (LH) from the pituitary gland
What happens during IVF? 1. Mother is given FSH and LH so several eggs mature. 2. Eggs collected from Mother. 3. Eggs fertilised in a laboratory using the father's sperm. 4. Fertilised eggs develop into embryos. 5. Embryos are inserted into the mother's uterus.
What is a plants response to a stimulus? A Tropism
What hormone controls the way in which a plant responds to light and gravity? Auxin
What is the way in which a plant grows in response to: - Light - Gravity called? Phototropism Gravitropism
What are drugs? Chemical substances which alter the way the body works
What are Statins? Drugs used to lower the amount of cholesterol found in the blood
What is the name of a fake drug given to people to 'trick' them into feeling better? Placebo
What was the Thalidomide drug? A drug that was supposed to be a sleeping pill, then found to relieve morning sickness, however, because the dug hadn't been tested on humans, they didn't find out about any of the side effects, which lead to babies being born with limb abnormalities. It is now used to treat leprosy.
What does tobacco smoke contain? Carbon Monoxide Nicotine Carcinogens
What are extremophiles? Organisms that live in environments that are very extreme
TRUE OR FALSE: The biomass at each stage in a food chain is more than it was at the previous stage FALSE Energy is lost between each stage, due of respiration and excretion
What sort of conditions do microorganisms like? Warm, Moist and AEROBIC
The constant cycling of carbon is called _____ _________ _______. The Carbon Cycle
Differences between the characteristics of individuals of the same species are called ____________. Variation
What are the two types of sexual reproduction? Sexual reproduction Asexual reproduction
What are the stages in Tissue Cloning? 1. Small groups of cells are scraped from part of a plant 2. The cells are grown on agar containing nutrients and hormones THE OFFSPRING ARE GENETICALLY IDENTICAL TO THE PARENT PLANT
What are the stages in Embryo Transplants? 1. Cells from a developing animal embryo are split before they become specialised 2. The resulting identical embryos are transplanted into host mothers OFFSPRING ARE GENETICALLY IDENTICAL TO EACH OTHER, BUT NOT THE PARENTS
What are the stages in Adult Cell Cloning? 1. The nucleus is removed from an unfertilised egg cell. 2. The nucleus from an adult body cell;, e.g. skin cell, is then inserted into the 'empty' egg cell. 3. An electric shock causes the egg cell to begin dividing to form an embryo. 4. The embryo is inserted into a host mother OFFSPRING GENETICALLY IDENTICAL TO THE DONOR ANIMAL (THAT THE NUCLEUS CAME FROM)
What are the steps in genetic modification? 1. Individual genes are 'cut out' of the chromosomes of an organism using special enzymes. 2. The genes are then transferred to the cells of other organisms
What concerns may people have about GM crops? - Its effect on wild flowers and insects - The uncertainty about the effects of GM crops on human helth
Who developed the theory of evolution by natural selection? Charles Darwin
Why wasn't the theory of evolution by natural selected not accepted straight away? - Lack of evidence. - Went against the belief that God created the earth. Mechanism of inheritance and variation wasn't discovered until 50 years later.
Who described a theory of evolution where changes during the lifetime of an organism were passed on to the next generation? Jean-Baptiste Lamarck
What are the steps in evolution? 1. individual organism within a species show variation because of differences in their genes. 2. Individuals better adapted to their environment are more likely to survive, SURVIVAL OF THE FITTEST. 3. Survivors pass on their genes, resulting in an 'improved' organism evolving through natural selection. Gene mutations may bring about a more rapid change in a species.
What are evolutionary trees? Models that allow us to map the relationships between organisms 9c437c79-289a-4126-9448-045465726d9b.jpg (image/jpg)