Sports Science Test, Sem 2

Flashcards by el33046, updated more than 1 year ago
Created by el33046 almost 7 years ago


Flashcards on Sports Science Test, Sem 2, created by el33046 on 08/28/2014.

Resource summary

Question Answer
axial skeleton all the bones from the cranium to the coccyx, compromised of 80 bones
appendicular skeleton all bones not a part of axial skeleton, made up of 126 bones, appendages and limbs
how does the axial skeleton connect to the appendicular skeleton? the pectoral girdle in the upper body, the pelvic girdle in the lower body
five major functions of skeleton protect (vital organs), give shape (to the body), minerals (storage), blood (produces red and white cells), movement (joints)
tibia larger shin bone, supports weight when upright (can function without fibula), long bone
fibula smaller shin bone, many muscles connect here
femur thigh bone, largest bone in the body (also strongest), long bone
tarsals located in feet
phalanges finger and toes, short bones
carpals located in wrist
radius between wrist and elbow, on pinky side, bigger bone (longer name)
ulna on the thumb side, smaller bone (shorter name)
humerus bone between elbow and scapula (how funny bone gets name)
scapula shoulder blades, flat bone
clavicle collarbone
cranium skull, protects brain, flat bone
vertebrae spinal cord, cervical - first seven vertebrae, thoracic - next 12, lumbar - next 5, sacrum - next 5 (fused), coccyx - last 4 (fused), irregular bones
ribs protect lungs and heart, muscles in between are called intercostals
pelvis hips...
functions of muscular system create movement, maintain body posture, produce heat
types of muscle skeletal muscle, smooth muscle, cardiac muscle
skeletal muscle voluntarily controlled (consciously), provides movement
smooth muscle controlled unconsciously (involuntary), located in lining of organs to allow function
cardiac muscle found in the heart, involuntary muscle
agonist and antagonist muscles muscles work in pairs, as one muscle contracts (agonist), the other relaxes (antagonist)
antagonist of triceps biceps
antagonist of pectorials rhomboids
antagonist of abdominals erector spinae
antagonist of adductors abductors
antagonist of quadriceps hamstrings
voluntary muscle creates movement in skeletal system, two types of voluntary muscle fibres (slow twitch and fast twitch)
slow twitch fibres contract with little effort for long periods of time
fast twitch fibres contract rapidly and powerfully, but tire quickly
pectorials chest, one on each side of sternum
external oblique runs alongside of abs
abductors outside of thigh
quadricep front of thigh
tibialis anterior front, inside of calf
deltoids on top of head of humerus, starts near clavicle
biceps forearm, front of arm when palm faces forward
rectus abdominus stomach
wrist flexors forearm, front of arm when palm faces forward
adductors inside of thigh
rhomboids upper back, taper to spinal cord
erector spinae lower back, make a diamond shape
gluteals buttock region, three of them (minimus, maximus, medius)
sartorius wraps around from front of leg (an adductor), to back of knee
gastrocnemius main calf muscle
trapezius 'back of clavicle' (in a sense), top of shoulders
triceps upper arm, top muscle when held in classic body builder pose
latissimus dorsi side of back, in the thoracic region
wrist extensors forearm, back of arm when palm faces forward
hamstrings back of thigh
soleus a calf muscle, smaller than gastrocnemius
achilles tendon back of ankle
types of joints immovable (fibrous) joints, slightly moveable (cartilaginous) joints, freely moveable (synovial) joints
immovable (fibrous) joints occurs where bones are fused together, no movement possible, eg sacrum and joints on the bones of the skull
slightly moveable (cartilaginous) joints allow slight movement, have tough layer of cartilage between bones, eg joints of vertebrae
freely moveable (synovial) joints allow free movement in a number of directions, eg hip, shoulder, knee, elbow
structure of joint
joint actions flexion + extension, abduction + adduction, rotation, circumduction, pronation + supernation, dorsiflexion + planterflexion
flexion + extension flexion= two bones move close together, extension= two bones move further apart
abduction + adduction abduction= movement of limb away from middle of body, adduction= movement of limb towards midline of body
rotation turning of joint around horizontal axis, eg turning of head
circumduction circular movement of a body part that makes a cone shaped airspace
pronation turning of hand so that palm faces downwards
supernation turning of hand so that palm faces upwards
dorsiflexion flexing of the foot
plantarflexion pointing the toe
circulatory system consists of heart, blood vessels and blood, removes waste products from body cells, transports nutrients, O and H2O to body cells, circulates blood
the heart pump that pushes blood around body, made up of cardiac muscle + 4 chambers, located slightly to the left of the chest cavity, protected by sternum, ribs and spinal column
structure of heart
pulse recording of the stretching and recoil of the walls of the aorta, felt most commonly in the neck (carotid pulse) and the wrist (radial pulse)
heart rate pumps an average of 50 to 75 times/minute in a resting adult, fitter you are, lower your resting pulse rate, and the faster it returns to resting level after exercise
maximal heart rate maximum rate that the heart is capable of beating, 220 - your age
basal heart rate resting heart rate
blood vessels elastic tubes that channel blood from all parts of body and return it to the heart
arteries take blood away from the heart
aorta main artery carrying blood away from the heart
blood in arteries oxygenated, with the exception of the arteries on the right side of the heart, which carry deoxygenated blood to the lungs
branching of arteries branch to form smaller arterioles, then become capillaries, microscopic blood vessels
capillaries nutrients and gases are exchanged with the body tissue through walls of capillary, join to form venules (tiny veins), which link up to larger veins and return to the heart
colour of blood artery - red blood (oxygenated), vein - dark red (deoxygenated)
respiratory system supplies blood with fresh oxygen and eliminates carbon dioxide (waste product)
structure of respiratory system
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