The search for better health

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Flashcards by gurlean97, updated more than 1 year ago
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Created by gurlean97 over 7 years ago
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Flashcards on The search for better health, created by gurlean97 on 09/06/2014.

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Question Answer
How do genes assist in the maintenance of health - Genes control the production of proteins in the body thus healthy genes=correct proteins are made - Through production of proteins e.g. enzymes genes ensure the correct cell processes occur e.g. maintaining metabolism and homeostatis
How does mitosis assist in the maintenance of health - Mitosis is the process that enables genetic material to be copied exactly, ensuring the genes are correct and able to maintain health in their own way - Mitosis is also the process that organisms use to grow and maintain and repair bod cells, maintaining health
How do cell differentiation and specialisation assist in maintenance of health - These 2 processes result in cells which are specialised for specific functions in the body, such as red blood cells, etc. - Together, all the specialised body cells work together in a coordinated way to maintain the health and proper functioning of the organism.
Link between gene expression and maintenance and repair of body tissues - The body's cells are always being replaced thus correct specialised cells must be produced to replace them. - This is done through mitosis followed by gene expression - DNA repair genes ensure that the DNA is accurately copied
Distinguish between infectious and non-infectious disease Infectious - caused by infection of pathogens - pathogen=infectious agent - e.g. viruses Non-infectious - Involves no pathogens - It can be > inherited >nutritional > environmental
Explain why cleanliness in food, water and personal hygiene practices assist in control of disease Cleanliness in food - contaminated food is a source of contamination e.g. salmonella - Microbes in food only become a risk when they are allowed to multiply modern methods to reduce the numbers of microbes include > heating >cooling >drying Cleanliness in water - Pathogens originate from faeces - Treatment of water in processes such as chlorination reduces the risk of disease Personal hygiene - Not removing waste can lead to disease - Reducing pathogens in modern times involve: >Sanitation > Disinfecting > Sterilizing
Identify conditions under which an organism is described as a pathogen - When they cause disease - If they cause disease it must > have virulence > enter host through a certain part of the body - escape from one host to another - survive transmission from one host to another
Describe ways in which drinking water can be treated and how they reduce risk of infection from pathogens Primary - Screening -De gritting - Flocculation -Sedimentation -Sludge processing Secondary - Filtration Tertiary - Chlorination
Describe the contribution of Pasteur and Koch to our understanding of infectious disease - Until mid 19th century people thought livings things were produced by spontaneous generation Loius Pasteur - Discovered infectious disease are caused by micro-organisms - He boiled nutrient broth and exposed one to air and one covered - The open one developed bacterial growth - thus proving that microbes which spoil food come from the air and disproved spontaneous generation - Developed the first vaccination using rod-shaped bacterium - Discovered pasteurisation > heating wine or milk for a few minutes kills the microbes which spoil them Robert Koch - Also studied anthrax disease - Discovered bacteria caused disease in blood
Prions - Non cellular infectious agents that cause disease in MAMMALS - Can be passed on - E.g. Jacobs disease
Viruses - Non-cellular pathogens - no cure of viral diseases- vaccinations can reduce prevalence - Can only reproduce inside other cells, killing them - E.g. AIDS
Bacteria - Unicellular - No membrane bound organelles - Only some are pathogenic and cause disease, many are useful - E.g. tetanus
Protozoans - Unicellular eucaryotic, animal like organisms - Free living or parasitic -E.g. sleeping sickness
Fungi - Some are unicellular, most are multicellular - Important role in decomposition of organic molecules, together with bacteria - E.g. ringworms
Macroparasites - Large disease causing organisms that can be seen with the naked eye - E.g. Fleas
Role of antibiotics in the management of infectious disease - Substances that are capable of destroying or inhibiting the growth of bacteria that cause disease - Antibiotics work at a cellular level: they destroy the cells of the bacteria - Some antibiotics affect the structure of the bacteria
Historical development of our understanding of the cause and prevention of malaria Early 19th century - cause was unknown - discovery of quinine with its anti-material properties 1877 - Manson demonstrated that a certain type of mosquito transmitted a minute parasitic worm from person to person 1880 - Laveran discovered the pathogen that cuases malaria while looking at the blood of malaria patient 1897-1898 - Ross demonstrated that the malaria parasite could be transmitted from the infected patient to mosquito 1944 - chemical structure of quanine was dtermined and the drug was synthesised 1950's - WHO tried to eradicate malaria using DDT and draining swamps 1990's - 2000's - Continuing to develop drugs but parasites are still resistant. Trying to develop a vaccine
Describe malaria in terms of its 1. Cause 2. Transmission 3. Host response 4. Major symptoms 5. Treatment 6. Prevention 7. Control 1. Plasmodium 2. Anopheles mosquito 3. Reccuring attacks of shivering, fever, headaches, nausea, sweating and lethargy 5. Natural resistance develops slowly. Treatment of suffer's include using anti-malarial drugs such as quanine 6. Protective clothing, insect repellent, mosquito nets 7. Drugs to destroy vector and parasite. Vaccines
Discuss problems relating to antibiotic resistance Strains of drug-resistant bacteria - Streptococcus pneumonia - Staphylococcus Aureus They cannot be treated with common antibiotics as they are resistant Also known as 'super-bugs' To overcome this- limit the use of antibiotics as the greater the use, the greater risk of mutation giving bacteria resistance
Defence barriers to prevent entry of pathogens in humans First line of defence - Skin -Cilia - Mucous Membrane - Chemical barriers - Other bodily secretions
Identify antigens as molecules that trigger the immune response An antigen is a molecule that triggers the immune response Antigens cause the formation of antibodies Antigen > ANTIbody-GENeratin substance E.g glyco-protein spikes on the surface of the influenza virus acts as antigens, trigers immune response. The venom of poisonous snakes also contains antigens
Explain why organ transplants trigger immune response Any other substance are recognised as "non-self" - foreign A transplanted organ contains substances which the immune system recognises as being foreign. These substances acts as ANTIGENS - This stimulates the body to make antibodies and other substances which attack and can possible destroy the organ
Identify defence adaptations Second Line of defence - Inflammation response - Phagocytosis - Lymph system - Cell death
Show how a named disease results from an imbalance of micro flora in humans Candidiasis or 'thrush' caused by an imbalance in the fungus 'candida albicans' Can happen in the mouth, respiratory tract, gastrointestinal tract and female reproductive tract
Identify the components of the immune response Third line of defence - Antibodies - B-cells - T-cells
Describe and explain the immune response in the human body in terms of - interaction between B and T lymphocytes - the mechanism which allow interaction between B and T lymphocytes - range of T lymphocyte types and the difference in their roles Interaction between B and T cells - When the antigen is engulfed by a macrophage - The macrophage alerts the immune system through HELPER T-CELLS - They then produce a chemical which stimulates T and B -cells - T cells are also activated by infected cells displaying the anitgen - B-cells are also actiavted by free antigens in the blood Mechanism of interaction - Clonal slection - Cytokines and Interleukins Range of T-cells > Helper T cells > Cytotoxic cells > Memory T cells > Supressor T cells
Outline the way in which vaccinations prevent infection - Process of making people resistant to infection caused by a pathogen - These vaccines are injected into the body with the intention of providing immunity to the disease without giving the symptoms - Active immmunity - Passive immunity
Reasons for the suppression of the immune response in organ transplant patients - A transplanted organ is recognised as foreign tissue by the immune system - Suppression of the immune system is needed to prevent the body from rejecting the organ
Evaluate the effectiveness of vaccination programs in preventing the spread and occurrence of smallpox, diphtheria and polio. Small pox > It can be said they were extremely effective since the vaccination resulted in complete eradication of the disease from the planet Diphtheria > reduced the spread of disease > even though rate of immunity is high, the disease id still present in developing countries and has not yet been eradicated Polio > Despite widespread success in polio control, there are still many breakouts in around 70 countries > Polio infection rates have been successfully controlled and reduced by 80 %
Identify and describe the main features of epidemiology using lung cancer as an example Lung cancer - In 2010- 5th most commonly diagnosed cancer - Accounts for 8.8% of all new cancers - In 2011 most common cause of death - At the end of 2007 is was estimated that 19000 people were diagnosed - Cancer is the leading burden of disease
Identify causes of non-infectious disease Inherited disease - caused by gene and chromosome abnormalities - transmitted by reproduction - e.g. down syndrome caused by the inheritance of an extra chromosome Nutritional disease - caused by incorrect or insufficient diets - it can be over-eating or under-nourishment - e.g. scurvy- this disease is caused by lack of vitamin C in the diet Environmental disease - many factors of the environment can cause disease - they include radiation, heavy metal, pollution etc - E.g. Asthma is caused by pollution, pollen, dust storms, humidity and many other environmental factors
Identify the cause and effect relationship of smoking and lung cancer Cause - Tobbaco smoke contains many carcinogens such as benzene Effect - As the tumour grows, the air sacs in the lungs are destroyed and breathing becomes difficult Statistics - Mass production of cigarettes began in 1880- free cigarettes were given to WW1 soldiers - In the 1930's there was a sudden lung cancer epidemic
Down Syndrome 1. Occurrence 2. Symptoms 3. Cause 4. Treatment/Management 1. 1 per 733 live births 2. Lower than average mental ability, almond shaped eyes, shorter limbs, speech impairment, enlarged tongue and high risk of heart failure 3. Trisomy- genetic disease that is caused by the presence of an extra chromosome in the 21st position 4. Special care, physiotherapy, development on the individual respect to social development, schooling and the workforce
Role of quarantine in preventing the spread of disease and plants and animals - protects the health of the human - prevents entry of foreign plants and contagious disease into Australia - Quarantine laws prevent the entry of items considered a risk - Important animals face time in isolation to ensure no disease is present - Living plants are also quarantined - Plant seeds are examined to check that no weed seeds are present
Evaluate the effectiveness of quarantine in preventing the spread of plant and animal diseases into Australia Because of strict quarantine laws, Australia is free of serious disease found in other countries such as foot and mouth disease, mad cow disease and rabies
Explain how pesticides have controlled and/or prevented disease Pesticides are used usually to kill the vectors that carry disease E.g. use of pesticide DDT to control malaria and lice carried disease
Discuss the changing methods of dealing with plant and animal disease including the shift in emphasis from treatment and control to management or prevention Incidence of disease has more commonly been met with an emphasis on treatment and control More recently however the emphasis has shifted to the importance and effectiveness of preventing and managing diseases instead E.g. Cancer> treatment= chemotherapy, radiotherapy useful if detected early. Prevention campaigns= advice and quit lines have proved to be more successful in reducing number of cancers
Evidence of pathogens and insect pests on plant leaves and schoots Pathogens - Bacteria cause spots on the surface of the leaves (‘rust’ on the Banksia leaves) - Fungal infections are shown by dark growths on the stems (‘black stem rot’) or on the undersides of leaves. Insect Pests - Insects (‘azalea lace-bugs’) feed on the plant itself, creating holes and damage. - Other insects, such as psyllids, reproduce on the plants, and leave behind egg shells and holes.
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