Grammar of English Flashcards

C L
Flashcards by , created over 1 year ago

Grammar of English Flashcards on Grammar of English Flashcards, created by C L on 02/26/2018.

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C L
Created by C L over 1 year ago
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Question Answer
Standard English The "technically correct" form of English
pronunciation how we say words
vocabulary words we know
grammar the rules that determine how the language is put together
formal style how the language is supposed to be spoken
informal style how the language is actually spoken in casual situations
descriptive approach focuses on simply describing the features of the language as it is currently used
prescriptive approach focuses on prescribing how the language should actually be used rather than how it is used
talking in a "static" way so that you are understood, on a same level with the other person
talking in a "dynamic" way wanting to sound better, sacrificing clarity for the rules
speech community a group of people who share the same language or variety of language
accent pattern of pronunciation that is associated with a particular speech community
dialect the set of grammatical and lexical features that mark the variety of language used by a speech community
diachronic variation across time
synchronic variation across space (geographical or social)
aspects of user-related variation in a language 1. function and purpose 2. subject matter 3. mode 4. context 5. relationship between speakers 6. values and attitudes of speakers
register the content of language associated with a particular group of people (eg the register of sports commentators vs the register of lawyers)
lexeme mental dictionary entry - multiple words can belong to one lexeme
word a meaningful unit that has meaning when it stands alone
morpheme smallest grammatical unit of a language
how do you know if something is a single morpheme it has only one meaning associated with it
the three types of affixes prefixes suffixes infixes
inflectional affix changes the details of the word (eg tense, number) but not its meaning or part of speech
derivational / lexical affix changes the word's part of speech or meaning
affixation the adding of morphemes to modify the grammar or meaning of a word
compounding putting two words together to make one
conversion a word changes its part of speech based on context, not based on its own change (can you action this for me)
stem modification emphasis changes in the word and therefore changes meaning (rebel or rebel)
suppletion irregular forms that aren't normal (child - children)
syncretism some things change depending on where they are in the sentence while others don't (he saw you, you saw him)
the nine inflectional affixes 1. -s 2. -ed 3. -ing 4. -en 5. -s 6. -'s 7. -s' 8. -er 9. -est
what does a phrase consist of? a head and dependents
open classes classes which are open to having new words adapted (like nouns and verbs)
closed classes classes which are very hard to have new words inserted (like coordinators)
clitic " 's " - it is a clitic because it attaches not to the noun that it refers to, but to the end of the noun phrase (Sarah and Caroline's view)
notional approach based on meaning
prototype best examples of a word class
form how something is presented in a sentence (eg noun phrase, verbal element)
function something's role in the sentence (eg subject, object)
verbal element the verb of the sentence - can just have a lexical verb or may be accompanied by auxiliary verbs
lexical verb the verb that carries the meaning of the action (run, hit, hide)
auxiliary verb adds extra grammatical information
what are the three main auxiliary verbs? do, have, be
what are the main modal verbs? can, could, may, might, shall, should, will, would, must, ought, dare
simple sentence contains only one clause
compound sentence contains at least two coordinated clauses
how do you know if something is one clause it has only one verbal element in it
all compound sentences have at least one... coordinator
correct format for outlining the clauses of a sentence < [I saw the cat] and [I hugged it.] >
complex sentence contains one or more subordinate clauses
how do the clauses work in a complex sentence? there is one main clause, which is in charge, and one or more subordinate clauses
compound-complex sentence contains one or more subordinate clauses and two or more coordinated clauses
what is the matrix verbal element the one that the main subject is doing
steps to identifying a clause 1. find all verbal elements 2. determine which is the matrix element 3. use substitution (it) or, pretend each verbal element is the matrix verbal element, and see which one makes sense.
properties of a basic (canonical) clause forms a sentence on its own one single clause, no subordinates structurally complete declarative only positive, not negative unmarked with respect to thematic variation
main functions that can be found within a clause subject object predicate predicator complement adjunct (adverbial) non-central complement
features of a subject (in a basic clause) always precedes the verb necessary in English noun phrase singular / plural verb agreement pronoun case yes-no questions swap the subject around repeated as a pronoun in tag questions
predicate the verb phrase (communicates something else about the subject) eg "leapt away", "marched to the cave"
predicator the actual verbal element eg "leapt", "marched"
complement an element that the verb requires for the clause to make sense eg "Fred felt sick" vs "*Fred felt".
adjunct / adverbial an element that adds extra to the clause but isn't necessary eg "the [brown] cat"
object usually follows the predicator noun phrase pronoun case can be shifted to the front of a clause in passive sentences can use a dummy noun (eg it) can be direct or indirect
difference between direct and indirect objects direct object: the noun phrase directly affected by the action - "chicken soup" indirect object: the beneficiary of the action - "her" If both are in a sentence, indirect comes before direct. "I offered her chicken soup."
how do you tell if something is a proper noun? it has a capital first letter it doesn't usually take a determiner
how do you tell if something is a verb? you can change its tense
difference between adjective and adverb adjectives describe nouns, adverbs describe everything else adverbs can be moved around in the sentence while adjectives can't
how do you test if something is a modal verb? it will be able to have "n't" added to it eg could, couldn't
what do pronouns replace? a noun phrase
how to test if something is the part of speech I think it is replace it with another word of the same form and see if the sentence is grammatical
what do subordinators do? they introduce a new clause
what four factors can be used to describe nouns? person case gender plurality
how do you tell if something is a noun? it can be pluralised it can take determiners
nominative case used for the subject of a sentence "Anne/she went to the shop." and for the subject compliment "Bill is a policeman", because it is still about the subject (Bill).
genitive case shows possession "This is Anne's/her bag."
accusative case used for the object of a sentence "I visited Anne/her."
vocative case used when the speaker is addressing someone directly. must be separated by a comma from the rest of the sentence. "Anne, come here."
which sorts of objects can become the subject in a passivized sentence? objects and indirect objects. prepositional phrases can't.
how do you know if something is a predicate complement? it describes an entity already referred to in the sentence. when it is a noun phrase, it agrees in number with the thing it refers to.
what are the basic clause patterns for different types of verbs? intransitive (ordinary intransitive) transitive (mono transitive) complex-intransitive (copulative) ditransitive complex-transitive
intransitive clause structure S + P
transitive clause structure S + P + O
complex-intransitive clause structure S + P + PCs
ditransitive clause structure S + P + Oi + Od
complex-transitive clause structure S + P + O + PCo
how do you use yes-no questions to tell what the subject is? if you turn the sentence into a yes-no question, the structure will be: aux verb - subject - verb
what are the types of non-central complement? locative temporal PP complement phrasal verbs catenative verbs
locative / temporal complements look like they can be removed and the sentence will make grammatical sense, but the meaning won't. (the path goes... around the field)
phrasal verb + adverb particle
prepositional verb verb + prepositional phrase
phrasal-prepositional verbs verb + adverb particle + PP complement
catenative verb a verb that takes a non-finite complement
how do you know if something is a constituent? it can be substituted with one word it can be moved around
three types of auxiliary verbs modal, non-primary, semi-auxiliary
structure of a noun phrase determiners modifiers head dependents
how do you know which noun is the head of a noun phrase? 1. it controls verb agreement 2. it is essential to convey the meaning of the clause 3. which noun is the verb related to?
what are the different uses of pronouns? anaphoric reference cataphoric reference deictic reference
anaphoric reference referring back to something that has already been introduced
cataphoric reference referring to something that will be introduced later
deictic reference the use of the pronoun is relevant to context
nominal a unit intermediate between the NP and the noun (in a syntax tree)
properties of a common noun inflected for number and genitive case countability
different types of nouns that contain numeric properties count nouns non-count (mass) nouns invariable nouns (both singular and plural) quantificational nouns (occur as part of an "of PP" collective nouns two linked nouns
impersonal subject "it" when used as a dummy marker - "it is raining"
existential marker "there" when used to say that something exists - "there is a cat"
functions of "it" anaphoric reference cataphoric reference deictic reference empty 'it'
types of pronouns personal (nom and acc) genitive (strong and weak) reflexive demonstrative interrogative relative indefinite reciprocal
genitive pronoun strong form: functions as head of a NP weak form: normally functions as determiner
reflexive pronoun basic - I made myself some tea. emphatic - I myself love tea.
demonstrative pronouns this, that, these, those
interrogative pronouns who, whom, which, whose
indefinite pronouns someone, nothing, everybody, none
reciprocal pronouns each other, one another
types of determinatives definite and indefinite articles demonstrative quantifying cardinal numerals fractions multipliers interrogative and relative (which, whichever)
predeterminers determiners that alter other determiners in a NP eg: "both those copies"
determinative phrase (DP) a determiner is the head of a phrase, and it contains other dependents (such as another determiner)
examples of genitive NP / genitive case clitics periphrastic ('of' - the name of the ship) genitives of measure (the length of the table)
syntactic constructions within the genitive case attributive "old folk's home" predicative "this is Carol's" subject in a subordinate clause oblique (double genitive) "that proposal of Brad's" fused determiner-head (ellipsis is used)
pre-head modifier any word of phrase appearing between the determiner(s) and the head of the NP
fused-head constructions / fused-head NPs the head of the NP is 'fused' with the determiner and is not actually stated in the sentence - "four boys played croquet and two played tennis"
two main types of fused-head constructions compound forms (determiner + head) eg "somebody" fused modifier-head (modifier + missing head) eg "she wanted the purple blanket but I wanted the pink"
post-head dependent any word or phrase that appears after the head noun within a noun phrase
apposition when the post-head dependent is the same thing as the head of the NP - "Sally, the owner of the shop, came to see me".
types of apposition equivalent meaning rewording one is an attribute of the other one includes the other
difference between complements and modifiers complements only occur when a phrase is needed for the sentence / noun to make sense, modifiers just add extra information
peripheral dependent extra information which is separated by commas (sort of like parentheses)
nominalisation when the carrying out of an action is reworded as a noun phrase
attributive adjective functions as pre-head dependent "the happy person"
predicative adjective either subject or object predicate "the person was happy"
postpositive adjective post-head dependent "someone very intelligent"
central adjective can be both attributive and predicative
peripheral adjective can only function as attributive or predicative
inflectional and analytical adjective modification inflectional - er, est analytical - more, most, less, least
what pre-head dependents do adjectives take? almost always just adverbs
what post-head dependents do adjectives take? PPs degree adverbs subordinate clauses
discontinuous adjective phrase an adjective and its post-head dependent are separated by the thing being described "a higher mark than she needed"
what are the three types of non-prototypical adjectives? intensifying adjectives downtoner adjectives limiter adjectives they modify the entire NP, not just the noun.
morphological properties of adverbs many inflect for grade (sooner, soonest) many are derived from adjectives
functions of an adverb verb modifier complement of a verb modifier of the head of an adjective phrase modifier of the head of an adverb phrase adjunct
what pre-head dependents does an adverb phrase take? adverb as modifier
what post-head dependents does an adverb phrase take? prepositional phrase subordinate clause
conjunctive adverbs establish relevance between two sentences/utterances "however, moreover, therefore" etc
disjunct an adverb phrase that provides a 'comment frame' "obviously, ..."
what are the subclasses of modifying adverbs (which modify adjectives and adverbs)? intensifiers downtoners qualifiers comparisons negators
fossilised prepositional idiom a preposition made up of two or more words "in front of, in league with"
complements of a preposition noun phrase adverb phrase another prepositional phrase
preposition stranding the preposition and the NP they modify are separated in the sentence "the house I live in"