Bio Exam 1

Jessica Kim
Flashcards by , created over 1 year ago

Flashcards on Bio Exam 1, created by Jessica Kim on 02/26/2018.

Jessica Kim
Created by Jessica Kim over 1 year ago
Bee Brittain
Biology -B2
Sian Griffiths
Key Biology Definitions/Terms
How does Shakespeare present villainy in Macbeth?
Key Biology Definitions/Terms
Biology -B2
Key Biology Definitions/Terms
jane zulu
Plant and animal cells
B3- Science. Cells, Genes and Enzymes.
Question Answer
Common characteristics of living organisms 1) maintain homeostasis 2) evolve 3) reproduce itself or with another; develops 4) requires energy to function
What is the structure of an atom? Enter text here... Mobile upload (image/jpeg)
What is the Atomic Number? Number of Protons
How do you determine the Atomic Mass? (# of Neutrons) + (# of Protons)
How do you determine the ionic charge? (-e) - (P)
How do you determine the number of electrons in an atom? (Atomic #) - (Atomic Mass)
What is a Nonpolar covalent bond? A chemical bond where two atoms share two electrons equally; VERY STRONG
What is a polar covalent bond? A chemical bond where a pair of electron unequally share two electrons; one atom has a stronger pull
Electronegativity The ability of an atom to attract shared electrons
What is a Covalent Bond? A bond formed by two atoms sharing an electron
What is polarity? The separation of charges
What is an ionic bond? Two atoms that are attracted to one another create an ionic bond. Energy is required to keep them apart to create minimum energy; attraction of opposite charges ions
What is an electrostatic interaction? The attractive or repulsive forces between objects having charges
What is the Van der Waal’s forces? A weak short range electrostatic attraction between two uncharged molecules
Element Cannot be broken down by chemical means into any other substance
Isotopes Variations in number of electrons
Radioactive Isotopes Unstable atoms that emit radioactive energy as they break down into stable forms
Molecules The way atoms are arranged
Compounds Two or more elements
Electron Shell The place where electrons are located
Bonding Fills vacancies in an election she’ll
What is the interaction between hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic (polar) bonds? Hydrophobic molecules are nonpolar and have long strands of carbon that do not interact with water molecules because of the Van der Waals forces both charges are weak and are non charged molecules
Hydrophilic Molecule Hydrophilic molecules are either charged or polar they don’t loose an electron but shift an electron from one atom to another; attracted to water
Hydrophobic Molecule Electrically neutral and have a non-polar reaction to water; they do not loose or gain electrons nor do they shift electrons
Hydrophobic Molecule (reaction between water and oil) Hydrophobic Molecule reaction in water they will separate into distinct layers and the oil and water will not react because both have weak non charged molecules
Hydrophilic Molecule (in water and oil) Hydrophilic Molecules (ie sugar) can be dissolved in water
What are monomers? They are subunits of repeating biological molecules
What is a polymer? Multiple joint monomers
What do many amino acid monomers make? Protein Polymer
What do glucose monomers make? Complex Carbohydrate Polymer
How are biological polymers made? Dehydration Synthesis
What is dehydration synthesis? The two atoms combine to form a byproduct and the bond links the two monomers ie when hydrogen monomer combine with an hydroxyl it forms water and create a bond
What is hydrolysis? It is the opposite of an dehydration synthesis so it breaks the polymers into monomers with the assistance of water; water is used to break the bond
What are some organic monomers? 1) Carbohydrates (monosaccharides) 2) Lipids (glycerol and fatty acids) 3) Nucleic Acids (nucleotides) 4) Proteins (amino acids)
What is the monomer for carbohydrates? Monosaccharides
What are the monomers for lipids? Glycerol and fatty acids
What are the monomers for nucleic acids? Nucleotides
What are the monomers for Proteins? Amino Acids
What are carbohydrates? They are sugar and starches and store energy
What are isomers They have the same chemical formula but have different structures
Can an monosaccharide be an isomer? Yes
What is glucose? A common source of energy for living things
What is glycolysis? A process which glucose is broken down by a cell
What is aerobic respiration? Process in which glucose is broken down further
What is starch? Stored by plants to use for energy
What is glycogen? Stored by animals for energy
What is fructose? An isomer or glucose is a simple sugar found in fruits
What is sucrose? Formed from a single glucose and single fructose; disaccharide
What is a disaccharide? A sugar that is composed of two monosaccharides
What are lipids? Waxes, fats, oils
Can lipids be used for energy storage? Yes
What is an important component of a cell membrane? Lipids
What are the three main types of fatty acids? 1) Saturated 2) Monounsaturated 3) Polyunsaturated
How are they differentiated? By the number of hydrogen atoms present
What are saturated fats? They are hydrocarbon molecules that have a hydrogen molecule in every carbon; hydrogenated
What are unsaturated fats? They have two carbons that share double or triple bonds and are not completely saturated in hydrogen bonds
Which polymer is DNA and RNA made of? They are made from long strands of nucleotide monomer creating a nucleic acid polymer
What are examples of Macromolecules? 1) Protein 2) Nucleic Acids 3) Lipids 4) Polysaccharides
What is a triglyceride? three fatty acids attached to a glycerol
1st step to the scientific method? Make an observation
2nd Ask a question
3rd Conduct prior knowledge
4th Formulate a hypothesis
5th Make predictions
6th Collect and formulate data
7th Conduct more prior knowledge
8th Draw conclusions
10th If not good go back to make an observation otherwise ask a peer to review your findings
11th Publish when satisfied
Why is the number of sample size important? The findings would be more closer to accurate
What is an independent variable? What is being manipulated
What is a dependent variable? What is being measured
What is the standard variable? The constant for all subjects
What is the control? An untreated group for comparison
What is a theory? An explanation for a natural phenomenon; proved by tremendous amount of research
What is the nucleus? Contains the DNA (blueprints) of the cell
What are ribosomes? Reads RNA to creates a chain of amino acids to create proteins
What is the rough endoplasmic reticulum? Aids processing protein
What is the Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum? Regulates and release calcium ions and processes toxins
What does the golgi complex do? Aids in transport, modifying, and packing proteins, lipids and vesticles
What are lysosomes? Aids in digesting worn organelles, food particles, and engulfed viruses or bacteria
What are vesticles? Transports proteins out of the cell
What is a selectively permeable bilayer? A bilipid layer that allows the active or passive transport of certain molecules or ions
What is active transport? Requires the cell to expend energy to move the molecules
What is passive transport? Can be done without cellular energy
Can any molecule or ion pass through the cell wall? No the molecule or ion has to match or be smaller than the hole in the bilayer
How can a larger molecule move into a cell? By forming a vesticle
What is phospholipid? A cell membran
What is a phospholipid? Are composed of hydrophilic head and hydrophobic tail; arranged head out and tail in
What is diffusion? The process of water molecules moving from a high water concentration to low through a selectively permeable membrane
What is turgid? A shriveled animal cell
What is Plasmolysed? When a plant cell shrivels up in the inside of the cell wall
What is diffusion? The passive movement of molecules or particles along a concentration gradient
What is concentration gradient? from regions of higher concentrations to regions of lower concentration
What is facilitated diffusion? When molecules diffuse via special transport proteins found within the cell membrane
What is simple diffusion? One that occurs non assisted
What is active transport? One that does not require chemical energy
What is endocytosis? A process a cell does to engulf materials from the outside in a plasma membrane called a vacuole
What is exocytosis? When a cell pushes particles or materials out
What is receptor-mediated endocytosis? Process where a cell absorbs proteins or viruses
What is an isotonic solution? one in which the concentration of solutes is the same both inside and outside of the cell.
What is hypertonic solution? ne in which the concentration of solutes is greater inside the cell than outside of it
What is hypotonic solution? one where the concentration of solutes is greater outside the cell than inside it
What are enzymes and what do they do? They are usually proteins that spreed up the rate of virtually all chemical reactions Mobile upload (image/jpeg)
What are substrates? Enter text here... Mobile upload (image/jpeg)
What is the active site? Enter text here... Mobile upload (image/jpeg)